[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Activating mutations of RET, a gene encoding two isoforms of a tyrosine kinase receptor physiologically expressed in several neural crest-derived cell lineages, are associated with the inherited forms of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC). The identification and characterization of novel RET mutations involved in MTC is valuable, as RET gene testing plays a crucial role in the management of these patients. In an MTC patient, we have identified a germline c.1996A>G transition in heterozygosis leading to K666E substitution. In addition, the conservative S904S (c.2712C>G) and the non-conservative functional G691S (c.2071G>A) polymorphisms have been identified. Through functional studies, we demonstrate for the first time that K666E is a gain-of-function mutation with oncogenic potential, based on its ability to transform NIH3T3 cells. It was not possible to define whether K666E is a de novo or inherited RET variant in the patient, as the family history was negative for MTC, and the carrier status of family members could not be tested. Our results, together with a recent report of co-segregation of the mutation in three MTC families, suggest that K666E is a causative MTC mutation. As we have shown that the same patient allele carries both K666E and G691S variants, the latter known to increase downstream RET signaling, a possible role for the G691S polymorphism has also been investigated. We have demonstrated that, although RET-G691S is not oncogenic per se, it enhances the transforming activity of the RET-K666E mutant, thus suggesting a modifier role for this functional polymorphism.
Endocrine Related Cancer 06/2011; 18(4):519-27. · 5.26 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although growing numbers of tubal carcinomas in carriers of BRCA1 and BRCA2 germline mutations have been reported, very little is known about the nature and frequency of their possible precursor lesions. The aim of this study is to investigate the occurrence of atypical proliferative tubal lesions in grossly normal fallopian tubes from 26 women with BRCA1 and BRCA2 germline mutations who underwent prophylactic salpingo-oophorectomy and whose ovaries were histologically negative for carcinoma. Fallopian tubes from 49 women who had undergone hysterectomy with salpingo-oophorectomy for uterine leiomyoma served as controls. In the 22 BRCA1-mutated women, there were two in situ carcinomas and two atypical hyperplasias of the tubal epithelium. The tubes of the BRCA2-mutated women and of the 49 control women did not show any atypical proliferation. The frequency of proliferative lesions of the tubal epithelium, including in situ carcinoma, appears to be increased in BRCA1 mutation carriers. Removal and thorough examination of the fallopian tubes at the time of surgical prophylaxis for ovarian cancer is therefore recommended.
International Journal of Gynecological Pathology 02/2004; 23(1):35-40. · 1.41 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: RET proto-oncogene germ line mutations are associated with the inherited multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 syndromes (MEN 2), as well as with familial and sporadic Hirschsprung's disease (HSCR). In this study, we report a family in which the MEN 2A and the HSCR phenotypes are associated with a single point mutation in exon 10 of the RET proto-oncogene. Furthermore, we have investigated polymorphic sequence variants of the RET proto-oncogene.
Family members were tested for RET proto-oncogene mutations in exons 10, 11, 13, 14, 15, and 16 by double-gradient denaturing-gradient gel electrophoresis, nucleotide sequence analysis, and restriction endonuclease digestion of polymerase chain reaction products. The status of exon 2 and 13 polymorphic sites was investigated by EagI and TaqI digestion in 12 selected patients.
A heterozygous C618R mutation of RET exon 10 was identified in 12 family members. Five out of 7 children with mildly elevated pentagastrin-stimulated calcitonin levels who carried the mutation underwent prophylactic thyroidectomy before the age of 12. C-cell hyperplasia (CCH) was found in 4 children and a microscopic medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) in an 8-year-old female. Neither CCH nor MTC was found in the only family member affected with HSCR, an 8-year-old male. This patient inherited the mutated RET allele from his mother, who had MTC but not HSCR, together with a rare allelic variant at codon 45 of RET exon 2.
This report of a newly-described kindred with the infrequent clinical association between MEN 2A and HSCR confirms the risk of the latter phenotype among carriers of RET exon 10 cysteine codon mutations. Nevertheless, the influence of other genetic or environmental factors cannot be excluded.
Surgery 05/2002; 131(4):373-81. · 3.37 Impact Factor