[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have previously demonstrated that tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) plays an important role through the conversion of plasminogen to plasmin in the release of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) evoked by depolarization or the systemic administration of drugs of abuse such as morphine and nicotine. In the present study, we examined the mechanisms by which drugs of abuse increase extracellular tPA activity in the NAc in vivo using in situ zymography. The dopamine D(1) receptor (D(1) R) agonist SKF38393, but not D(2) receptor agonist quinpirole, significantly increased extracellular tPA activity in the NAc. The effect of SKF38393 was blocked by pre-treatment with the dopamine D(1) R antagonist SCH23390. Microinjection of Rp-cAMPs, a protein kinase A inhibitor, into the NAc completely blocked the effect of SKF38393. Systemic administration of morphine and methamphetamine increased extracellular tPA activity in the NAc, and these effects were completely blocked by pre-treatment with SCH23390 and raclopride. The results suggest that activation of post-synaptic dopamine D(1) Rs in the NAc leads to an increase in extracellular tPA activity via protein kinase A signaling. Furthermore, dopamine D(2) receptors are also involved in the release of tPA induced by morphine and methamphetamine.
Journal of Neurochemistry 11/2007; 103(6):2589-96. DOI:10.1111/j.1471-4159.2007.04946.x · 4.28 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have previously demonstrated that tissue plasminogen activator (tPA)-plasmin system participates in the rewarding effect of morphine, by regulating dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). However, it is unclear how plasmin increases the morphine-induced release of dopamine and hyperlocomotion. In the present study we investigated whether protease activated receptor-1 (PAR-1) is involved in the regulation of acute morphine-induced dopamine release by the tPA-plasmin system. Morphine significantly but transiently increased extracellular tPA activity in the NAc, which was completely blocked by naloxone. Microinjection of a PAR-1 antagonist, (tyr(-1))-thrombin receptor activating peptide 7, into the NAc significantly reduced morphine-induced dopamine release in the NAc and hyperlocomotion although the treatment had no effect on basal dopamine release and spontaneous locomotor activity. Furthermore, the PAR-1 antagonist blocked the ameliorating effect of plasmin on the defect of morphine-induced dopamine release in the NAc of tPA-deficient mice. In contrast, intracerebroventricular injection of the PAR-1 antagonist had no effect on the antinociceptive effects of morphine in mice. These results suggest that PAR-1 is a target for the tPA-plasmin system in the regulation of acute morphine-induced dopamine release in the NAc.
Journal of Neurochemistry 07/2007; 101(5):1392-9. DOI:10.1111/j.1471-4159.2006.04423.x · 4.28 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a serine protease, catalyzes the conversion of plasminogen to plasmin. In the present study, we investigated the role of the tPA-plasmin system in depolarization-evoked dopamine (DA) and acetylcholine (ACh) release in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and hippocampus, respectively, of mice, by using in vivo microdialysis. Microinjection of either tPA or plasmin significantly potentiated 40 mM KCl-induced DA release without affecting basal DA levels. In contrast, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 dose-dependently reduced 60 mM KCl-induced DA release. The 60 mM KCl-evoked DA release in the NAc was markedly diminished in tPA-deficient (tPA-/-) mice compared with wild-type mice, although basal DA levels did not differ between the two groups. Microinjections of either exogenous tPA (100 ng) or plasmin (100 ng) into the NAc of tPA-/-mice restored 60 mM KCl-induced DA release, as observed in wild-type mice. In contrast, there was no difference in either basal or 60 mM KCl-induced ACh release in the hippocampus between wild-type and tPA-/-mice. Our findings suggest that the tPA-plasmin system is involved in the regulation of depolarization-evoked DA release in the NAc.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nicotine, a primary component of tobacco, is one of the most abused drugs worldwide. Approximately four million people die each year because of diseases associated with tobacco smoking. Mesolimbic dopaminergic neurons mediate the rewarding effects of abused drugs, including nicotine. Here we show that the tissue plasminogen activator (tPA)-plasmin system regulates nicotine-induced reward and dopamine release by activating protease activated receptor-1 (PAR1). In vivo microdialysis revealed that microinjection of either tPA or plasmin into the nucleus accumbens (NAc) significantly potentiated whereas plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 reduced the nicotine-induced dopamine release in the NAc in a dose-dependent manner. Nicotine-induced dopamine release was markedly diminished in tPA-deficient (tPA-/-) mice, and the defect of dopamine release in tPA-/- mice was restored by microinjection of either exogenous tPA or plasmin into the NAc. Nicotine increased tPA protein levels and promoted the release of tPA into the extracellular space in the NAc. Immunohistochemistry revealed that PAR1 immunoreactivity was localized to the nerve terminals positive for tyrosine hydroxylase in the NAc. Furthermore, we demonstrated that plasmin activated PAR1 and that nicotine-induced place preference and dopamine release were diminished in PAR1-deficient (PAR1-/-) mice. Targeting the tPA-plasmin-PAR1 system would provide new therapeutic approaches to the treatment of nicotine dependence.
The Journal of Neuroscience : The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience 12/2006; 26(47):12374-83. DOI:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3139-06.2006 · 6.34 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The extracellular serine protease tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) that converts plasminogen into plasmin is abundantly expressed throughout the central nervous system. We have recently demonstrated that the tPA-plasmin system participates in the rewarding and locomotor-stimulating effects of morphine by acutely regulating morphine-induced dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). In the present study, we examined the effects of microinjections of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), tPA or plasmin into the NAc on morphine-induced dopamine release, hyperlocomotion and anti-nociceptive effects in ICR mice. A single morphine treatment resulted in an increase in protein levels of PAI-1 in the NAc. Microinjection of PAI-1 into the NAc dose-dependently reduced morphine-induced dopamine release and hyperlocomotion. In contrast, microinjection of tPA into the NAc significantly potentiated morphine-induced dopamine release and hyperlocomotion without affecting basal levels. Furthermore, microinjection of plasmin enhanced morphine-induced dopamine release, but did not modify the hyperlocomotion induced by morphine. The intracerebroventricular injection of PAI-1, tPA and plasmin at high doses had no effect on the anti-nociceptive effects of morphine. These results suggest that the tPA-plasmin system is involved in the regulation of morphine-induced dopamine release and dopamine-dependent behaviors but not the anti-nociceptive effects of morphine.
Journal of Neurochemistry 07/2005; 93(5):1272-9. DOI:10.1111/j.1471-4159.2005.03117.x · 4.28 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the central nervous system, tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) plays a role in synaptic plasticity and remodeling. Our recent study has suggested that tPA participates in the rewarding effects of morphine by regulating dopamine release. In this study, we investigated the role of tPA in methamphetamine (METH)-related reward and sensitization. Repeated METH treatment dose-dependently induced tPA mRNA expression in the frontal cortex, nucleus accumbens, striatum and hippocampus, whereas single METH treatment did not affect tPA mRNA expression in these brain areas. The METH-induced increase in tPA mRNA expression in the nucleus accumbens was completely inhibited by pre-treatment with R(+)-SCH23390 and raclopride, dopamine D1 and D2 receptor antagonists, respectively. In addition, repeated METH treatment increased tPA activity in the nucleus accumbens. There was no difference in METH-induced hyperlocomotion between wild-type and tPA-deficient (tPA-/-) mice. On the other hand, METH-induced conditioned place preference and behavioral sensitization after repeated METH treatment were significantly reduced in tPA-/- mice compared with wild-type mice. The defect of behavioral sensitization in tPA-/- mice was reversed by microinjections of exogenous tPA into the nucleus accumbens. Our findings suggest that tPA is involved in the rewarding effects as well as the sensitization of the locomotor-stimulating effect of METH.
Journal of Neurochemistry 03/2005; 92(3):660-7. DOI:10.1111/j.1471-4159.2004.02903.x · 4.28 Impact Factor