[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: A giant congenital melanocytic nevus (GCMN) is a malformation of the pigment cells. It is a distress to the patients for two reasons: one is disfigurement, and the other is the possibility of malignant changes. However, the underlying mechanisms of the development of GCMN and melanotumorigenesis in GCMN are unknown. Hence, the aim of this study was to identify the proteomic alterations and associated functional pathways in GCMN. RESULTS: Proteomic differences between GCMN (n = 3) and normal skin samples (n = 3) were analyzed by one-dimensional-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry Relative levels of the selected proteins were validated using western blot analysis. The biological processes associated with the abundance modified proteins were analyzed using bioinformatic tools. Among the 46 abundance modified proteins, expression of 4 proteins was significantly downregulated and expression of 42 proteins was significantly upregulated in GCMN compared to normal skin samples (p < 0.05). More importantly, 31% of the upregulated proteins were implicated in various cancers, with five proteins being specifically related with melanoma. The abundance modified proteins in GCMN were involved in the biological processes of neurotrophin signaling, melanosome, and downregulated of MTA-3 in ER-negative breast tumors. In particular, an increase in the expression of the 14-3-3 protein family members appeared to be associated with key cellular biological functions in GCMN. Western blot analysis confirmed the upregulation of 14-3-3epsilon, 14-3-3 tau, and prohibitin in GCMN. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that GCMN exhibits potential proteomic alterations, which may play a role in melanotumorigenesis, and the significant alteration of 14-3-3 family proteins could be a key regulator of the biological pathway remodeling in GCMN.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigated the impairment of ATP-sensitive K(+) (K(ATP)) channels in aortic smooth muscle cells (ASMCs) from isoproterenol-induced hypertrophied rabbits. The amplitude of K(ATP) channels induced by the K(ATP) channel opener pinacidil (10 μM) was greater in ASMCs from control than from hypertrophied animals. In phenylephrine-preconstricted aortic rings, pinacidil induced relaxation in a dose-dependent manner. The dose-dependent curve was shifted to the right in the hypertrophied (EC(50): 17.80 ± 3.28 μM) compared with the control model (EC(50): 6.69 ± 2.40 μM). Although the level of Kir6.2 subtype expression did not differ between ASMCs from the control and hypertrophied models, those of the Kir6.1 and SUR2B subtypes were decreased in the hypertrophied model. Application of the calcitonin-gene related peptide (100 nM) and adenylyl cyclase activator forskolin (10 μM), which activates protein kinase A (PKA) and consequently K(ATP) channels, induced a K(ATP) current in both control and hypertrophied animals; however, the K(ATP) current amplitude did not differ between the two groups. Furthermore, PKA expression was not altered between the control and hypertrophied animals. These results suggests that the decreased K(ATP) current amplitude and K(ATP) channel-induced vasorelaxation in the hypertrophied animals were attributable to the reduction in K(ATP) channel expression but not to changes in the intracellular signaling mechanism that activates the K(ATP) current.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Beta adrenergic overstimulation may increase the vascular damage and stroke. However, the underlying mechanisms of beta adrenergic overstimulation in cerebrovascular dysfunctions are not well known. We investigated the possible cerebrovascular dysfunction response to isoproterenol induced beta-adrenergic overstimulation (ISO) in rabbit cerebral arteries (CAs).
ISO was induced in six weeks aged male New Zealand white rabbit (0.8-1.0 kg) by 7-days isoproterenol injection (300 μg/kg/day). We investigated the alteration of protein expression in ISO treated CAs using 2DE proteomics and western blot analysis. Systemic properties of 2DE proteomics result were analyzed using bioinformatics software. ROS generation and following DNA damage were assessed to evaluate deteriorative effect of ISO on CAs. Intracellular Ca(2+) level change and vascular contractile response to vasoactive drug, angiotensin II (Ang II), were assessed to evaluate functional alteration of ISO treated CAs. Ang II-induced ROS generation was assessed to evaluated involvement of ROS generation in CA contractility.
Proteomic analysis revealed remarkably decreased expression of cytoskeleton organizing proteins (e.g. actin related protein 1A and 2, α-actin, capping protein Z beta, and vimentin) and anti-oxidative stress proteins (e.g. heat shock protein 9A and stress-induced-phosphoprotein 1) in ISO-CAs. As a cause of dysregulation of actin-cytoskeleton organization, we found decreased level of RhoA and ROCK1, which are major regulators of actin-cytoskeleton organization. As functional consequences of proteomic alteration, we found the decreased transient Ca(2+) efflux and constriction response to angiotensin II and high K(+) in ISO-CAs. ISO also increased basal ROS generation and induced oxidative damage in CA; however, it decreased the Ang II-induced ROS generation rate. These results indicate that ISO disrupted actin cytoskeleton proteome network through down-regulation of RhoA/ROCK1 proteins and increased oxidative damage, which consequently led to contractile dysfunction in CA.
PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(8):e43884. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study examined the mechanisms of hypertension in diabetes. We investigated the effects of serotonin (5-HT) on voltage-dependent K(+) (Kv) channel activity, vasoconstriction, 5-HT receptor expression levels, and the involvement of protein kinase C (PKC) in mesenteric arteries of Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima fatty (OLETF) rats compared with Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO) rats. Blood pressure, body weight, blood glucose level, and mesenteric arterial wall thickness were greater in OLETF rats. The 5-HT-induced vasoconstriction of mesenteric arteries was greater in OLETF rats than in LETO rats and inhibited by the 5-HT(2A) inhibitor inhibitor, ketanserin. The Kv currents in mesenteric arterial smooth muscle cells (MASMCs), determined using a perforated patch clamp technique, was inhibited by 1 mM 4-AP (42.5 +/- 4.1% vs. 63.5 +/- 2.3% in LETO vs. OLETF rats at +40 mV), but was insensitive to 1 mM TEA and 100 nM iberiotoxin. The inhibition of Kv current by 1 microM 5-HT in MASMCs was greater in OLETF rats than in LETO rats (17.1 +/- 2.2% vs. 33.2 +/- 2.7% in LETO vs. OLETF rats at +40 mV), and the inhibition was prevented by treatment with the PKCalpha- and beta- selective inhibitor, Gö6976. The expression level of 5-HT(2A), but not 5-HT(2B), receptor and the expression levels of total PKC, PKCbeta, and PKCepsilon, but not PKCalpha, were higher in the mesenteric arteries of OLETF rats compared with LETO rats. The enhanced expression of 5-HT(2A) receptor together with PKCbeta may promote mesenteric vasoconstriction and increase vascular resistance in OLETF rats.
Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology 02/2010; 103(1):88-94. · 2.91 Impact Factor