[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Apatura ilia (Denis and Schiffermüller, 1775) and A. iris (Linnaeus, 1758) are fascinating butterflies found in the Palaearctic ecozone (excepting the north of Africa). The wings of these insects are covered with a great number of two types of scales positioned like roof tiles. Type I scales are on the surface, while type II scales are situated below them. The structural color of the type I scales is recognized only on the dorsal side of both the fore and hind wings of the males of the aforementioned species. Both types of scales are responsible for pigment color of the wings, but iridescence is observed only in the type I scales. The brilliant structural color is due to a multilayer structure. The features of the scales, their dimensions and fine structure were obtained using scanning electron microscopy. Cross sections of the scales were then analyzed by transmission electron microscopy. The scales of the "normal" and clytie forms of A. ilia have a different nanostructure, but are of the same type. A similar type of structure, but with a different morphology, was also noticed in A. iris. The scales of the analyzed species resemble the scales of tropical Morpho butterflies.
Microscopy Research and Technique 03/2012; 75(7):968-76. · 1.59 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have already shown that metallophilic macrophages, which represent an important component in the thymus physiology, are lacking in lymphotoxin-β receptor-deficient mice. However, further molecular requirements for the development and correct tissue positioning of these cells are unknown. To this end, we studied a panel of mice deficient in different chemokine ligand or receptor genes. In contrast to normal mice, which have these cells localized in the thymic cortico-medullary zone (CMZ) as a distinct row positioned between the cortex and medulla, in plt/plt (paucity of lymph node T cells) mice lacking the functional CCL19/CCL21 chemokines, metallophilic macrophages are not present in the thymic tissue. Interestingly, in contrast to the CCL19/21-deficient thymus, metallophilic macrophages are present in the CCR7-deficient thymus. However, these cells are not appropriately located in the CMZ, but are mostly crowded in central parts of thymic medulla. The double staining revealed that these metallophilic macrophages are CCR7-negative and CXCR3-positive. In the CXCL13-deficient thymus the number, morphology and localization of metallophilic macrophages are normal. Thus, our study shows that CCL19/21 and its possible signaling through CXCR3 are required for the development of thymic metallophilic macrophages, whereas the CXCL13-CXCR5 signaling is not necessary.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Thymic metallophilic macrophages represent a significant component in the thymus physiology. Recently, we showed their presence to be dependent on functional lymphotoxin-beta receptor (LT beta R) signaling pathway. However, it is unknown whether the development of metallophilic macrophages also requires the Autoimmune regulator (Aire) transcription factor, as suggested by some studies for medullary thymic epithelial cells, or perhaps the presence of Aire-expressing thymic epithelial cells themselves. Therefore, we investigated the presence of metallophilic macrophages in Aire-deficient thymus. Our study shows that the metallophilic macrophages are fully developed in the Aire-deficient thymus; their development is not regulated via Aire transcription factor and does not require the presence of Aire-expressing epithelial cells. On the contrary, in alymphoplasia (ALY) mice (deficient in nuclear factor-kappaB-inducing kinase, NIK), which we used as negative control, thymic metallophilic macrophages are completely lacking, similarly as in LT beta R-deficient animals. Together, these results show that the development/maintenance of thymic metallophilic macrophages is executed via LT beta R circumventing the Aire transcription factor. Thus, we shed a new light on the molecular requirements for development of these cells and also show that LT beta R pathway is a common developmental regulator of metallophilic macrophages in different lymphatic organs (i.e., thymus and spleen).
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The goal of this study was to show early and midterm results of surgical treatment of cardiac neoplasma.
Between 2000. and 2008., sixty-seven patients with a cardiac tumor or a subdiaphragmatic neoplasma with right atrial extension were operated in our institution. In 22 patients (32.8%), not only a simple extirpation of neoplasma, but an additional surgical procedure was done.
A patient reoperated for a recurence of biatrial myxoma died early after operation (1.5% mortality rate). During follow-up period of 3.3 years, two patients (3.4%) out of 58 that were contacted died because of the neoplasma (Methastasis of adenocarcinoma, Carcinoma renis).
Surgical treatment of cardic tumors resulted in low early mortality and an excellent survival rate after a follow-up period of 3.3 years.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lymphotoxin-beta receptor (LTbetaR) axis plays a crucial role in development and compartmentalization of peripheral lymphatic organs. But, it is also required for the appropriate function and maintenance of structural integrity of the thymus: in LTbetaR-deficient animals the clonal deletion of autoreactive lymphocytes is impaired and differentiation of thymic medullary epithelial cells is disturbed. In this study, using several markers, we showed that thymic metallophilic macrophages were lacking in LTbetaR-deficient mice. In tumor necrosis factor receptor-I (p55)-deficient mice (which we used as positive control) thymic metallophilic cells were located, similarly as in normal mice, in the thymic cortico-medullary zone at the junction of cortex and medulla. These findings show that LTbetaR is necessary for maintenance of metallophilic macrophages in the thymus and provide further evidence that these cells may represent a factor involved in thymic negative selection.