[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The endoplasmic reticulum (ER), which plays a role in apoptosis, is susceptible to oxidative stress. Because superoxide is produced in the brain after ischemia/reperfusion, oxidative injury to this organelle may be implicated in ischemic neuronal cell death. Activating transcription factor-4 (ATF-4) and C/EBP-homologous protein (CHOP), both of which are involved in apoptosis, are induced by severe ER stress. Using wild-type and human copper/zinc superoxide dismutase transgenic rats, we observed induction of these molecules in the brain after global cerebral ischemia and compared them with neuronal degeneration. In ischemic, wild-type brains, expression of ATF-4 and CHOP was increased in the hippocampal CA1 neurons that would later undergo apoptosis. Transgenic rats had a mild increase in ATF-4 and CHOP and minimal neuronal degeneration, indicating that superoxide was involved in ER stress-induced cell death. We further confirmed attenuation on induction of these molecules in transgenic mouse brains after focal ischemia. When superoxide was visualized with ethidium, signals for ATF-4 and superoxide overlapped in the same cells. Moreover, lipids in the ER were robustly peroxidized by ischemia but were attenuated in transgenic animals. This indicates that superoxide attacked and damaged the ER, and that oxidative ER damage is implicated in ischemic neuronal cell death.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Oxidative damage to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) could be involved in ischemic neuronal cell death because this organelle is susceptible to reactive oxygen species. Using wild-type mice and copper/zinc-superoxide dismutase (SOD1) transgenic mice, we induced focal cerebral ischemia and compared neuronal degeneration and ER stress, that is, phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor 2alpha (eIF2alpha) and RNA-dependent protein kinase-like ER eIF2alpha kinase (PERK). We found that neurons with severe and prolonged phosphorylation of eIF2alpha and PERK underwent later degeneration, and that this was partially prevented by SOD1 overexpression. Signals for superoxide production and phospho-PERK were colocalized, which further indicates a pivotal role for superoxide in ER damage. We investigated the molecular mechanisms of oxidative ER stress and found that detachment of glucose-regulated protein 78 from PERK was the key step. We conclude that ER damage is involved in oxidative neuronal injury in the brain after ischemia/reperfusion.
Neurobiology of Disease 04/2004; 15(2):229-39. · 5.62 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Akt signaling pathway contributes to regulation of apoptosis after a variety of cell death stimuli. A novel proline-rich Akt substrate (PRAS) was recently detected and found to be involved in apoptosis. In our study, Akt activation was modulated by growth factors, and treatment with nerve growth factor (NGF) reduced apoptotic cell death after ischemic injury. However, the role of the PRAS pathway in apoptotic neuronal cell death after ischemia remains unknown. Phosphorylated PRAS (pPRAS) and the binding of pPRAS/phosphorylated Akt (pPRAS/pAkt) to 14-3-3 (pPRAS/14-3-3) were detected, and their expression transiently decreased in mouse brains after transient focal cerebral ischemia (tFCI). Liposome-mediated pPRAS cDNA transfection induced overexpression of pPRAS, promoted pPRAS/14-3-3, and inhibited apoptotic neuronal cell death after tFCI. The expression of pPRAS, pPRAS/pAkt, and pPRAS/14-3-3 increased in NGF-treated mice but decreased with inhibition of phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase and the NGF receptor after tFCI. These results suggest that PRAS phosphorylation and its interaction with pAkt and 14-3-3 might play an important role in neuroprotection mediated by NGF in apoptotic neuronal cell death after tFCI.
Journal of Neuroscience 03/2004; 24(7):1584-93. · 6.91 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The endoplasmic reticulum (ER), which plays important roles in apoptosis, is susceptible to oxidative stress. Because reactive oxygen species (ROS) are robustly produced in the ischemic brain, ER damage by ROS may be implicated in ischemic neuronal cell death. We induced global brain ischemia on wild-type and copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD1) transgenic rats and compared ER stress and neuronal damage. Phosphorylated forms of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 alpha (eIF2 alpha) and RNA-dependent protein kinase-like ER eIF2 alpha kinase (PERK), both of which play active roles in apoptosis, were increased in hippocampal CA1 neurons after ischemia but to a lesser degree in the transgenic animals. This finding, together with the finding that the transgenic animals showed decreased neuronal degeneration, indicates that oxidative ER damage is involved in ischemic neuronal cell death. To elucidate the mechanisms of ER damage by ROS, we analyzed glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) binding with PERK and oxidative ER protein modification. The proteins were oxidatively modified and stagnated in the ER lumen, and GRP78 was detached from PERK by ischemia, all of which were attenuated by SOD1 overexpression. We propose that ROS attack and modify ER proteins and elicit ER stress response, which results in neuronal cell death.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The X chromosome-linked inhibitor-of-apoptosis protein (XIAP) contributes to apoptosis regulation after a variety of cell death stimuli. XIAP inhibits the caspase reaction via binding to caspases, and is inhibited via binding to the second mitochondria-derived activator of caspase (Smac)/DIABLO to tightly control apoptotic cell death. However, the interaction among XIAP, Smac/DIABLO, and caspases after in vivo cerebral ischemia is not well known. To clarify this issue, the authors examined time-dependent expression and interaction among XIAP, Smac/DIABLO, and activated caspase-9 by immunohistochemistry, Western blot analysis, and immunoprecipitation using an in vivo transient focal cerebral ischemia model. To examine the relationship of the XIAP pathway to the caspase cascade, a pan-caspase inhibitor was administered. XIAP increased concurrently with the release of Smac/DIABLO and the appearance of activated caspase-9 during the early period after reperfusion injury. The bindings of XIAP to Smac/DIABLO and to caspase-9 and the binding of Smac/DIABLO to caspase-9 reached a peak simultaneously after transient focal cerebral ischemia. Neither XIAP nor Smac/DIABLO expression was affected by caspase inhibition. These results suggest that the XIAP pathway was activated upstream of the caspase cascade and that interaction among XIAP, Smac/DIABLO, and caspase-9 plays an important role in the regulation of apoptotic neuronal cell death after transient focal cerebral ischemia.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is implicated in neuronal degeneration in some situations, its role in delayed neuronal cell death (DND) after ischemia remains uncertain. The authors speculated that ER stress is involved in DND, that it is reduced by ischemic preconditioning, and that ER stress reduction by preconditioning is due to ER molecular chaperone induction. The phosphorylation status of eukaryotic initiation factor 2alpha (eIF2alpha) and RNA-dependent protein kinase-like ER eIF2alpha kinase (PERK) was investigated in the rat hippocampus after ischemia with and without preconditioning. PERK is phosphorylated by ER stress, which phosphorylates eIF2alpha. To investigate the role of ER molecular chaperones in preconditioning, the authors examined GRP78 and GRP94 expression, both of which are ER chaperones that inhibit PERK phosphorylation, and compared their induction and ischemic tolerance time windows. Phosphorylation of eIF2alpha and PERK was confirmed after severe ischemia but was inhibited by preconditioning. After preconditioning, GRP78 was increased in the brain with a peak at 2 days, which corresponded with the ischemic tolerance time window. Immunoprecipitation and double staining demonstrated involvement of GRP78 in prevention of PERK phosphorylation. These results suggest that GRP78 induced by preconditioning may reduce ER stress and eventual DND after ischemia.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Blockade of mitochondrial permeability transition protects against hypoglycemic brain damage. To study the mechanisms downstream from mitochondria that may cause neuronal death, we investigated the effects of cyclosporin A on subcellular localization of apoptosis-inducing factor and cytochrome c, activation of the cysteine proteases calpain and caspase-3, as well as its effect on brain extracellular calcium concentrations. Redistribution of cytochrome c occurred at 30 min of iso-electricity, whereas translocation of apoptosis-inducing factor to nuclei occurred at 30 min of recovery following 30 min of iso-electricity. Active caspase-3 and calpain-induced fodrin breakdown products were barely detectable in the dentate gyrus and CA1 region of the hippocampus of rat brain exposed to 30 or 60 min of insulin-induced hypoglycemia. However, 30 min or 3 h after recovery of blood glucose levels, fodrin breakdown products and active caspase-3 markedly increased, concomitant with a twofold increase in caspase-3-like enzymatic activity. When rats were treated with neuroprotective doses of cyclosporin A, but not with FK 506, the redistribution of apoptosis-inducing factor and cytochrome c was reduced and fodrin breakdown products and active caspase-3 immuno-reactivity was diminished whereas the extracellular calcium concentration was unaffected. We conclude that hypoglycemia leads to mitochondrial permeability transition which, upon recovery of energy metabolism, mediates the activation of caspase-3 and calpains, promoting cell death.
Journal of Neurochemistry 07/2003; 85(6):1431-42. · 3.97 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Bad signaling pathway contributes to the regulation of apoptosis after a variety of cell death stimuli, and Bad plays a key role in determining cell death or survival. We have reported that overexpression of copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD1) reduces apoptotic cell death after transient focal cerebral ischemia (tFCI). However, both the role of the Bad pathway after tFCI and the role of oxygen free radicals in the regulation of apoptosis remain unknown. To clarify these issues, we used an in vivo tFCI model of SOD1 transgenic mice and wild-type mice. Moreover, to examine the role of protein kinase A (PKA) in the Bad pathway after tFCI, we administered the PKA inhibitor, H89, into the mouse brain after tFCI. Immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis showed that dephosphorylation and translocation of Bad were detected early after tFCI and that they were promoted by H89 treatment but prevented by SOD1. Coimmunoprecipitation revealed that the dimerization of Bad progressed with 14-3-3 (Bad/14-3-3) and with Bcl-x(L) (Bad/Bcl-x(L)) after tFCI. Moreover, Bad/14-3-3 was prevented by H89 treatment but promoted by SOD1. Bad/Bcl-x(L) was prevented by SOD1 but promoted by H89 treatment. A cell death assay revealed that apoptotic-related DNA fragmentation was aggravated by H89 treatment but reduced by SOD1. These results suggest that the Bad pathway mediated by PKA is involved in apoptotic cell death after tFCI and that overexpression of SOD1 may attenuate this apoptotic cell death.
Journal of Neuroscience 04/2003; 23(5):1710-8. · 6.91 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mitochondria are known to be involved in the early stage of apoptosis by releasing cytochrome c, caspase-9, and the second mitochondria-derived activator of caspases (Smac). We have reported that overexpression of copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD1) reduced superoxide production and ameliorated neuronal injury in the hippocampal CA1 subregion after global ischemia. However, the role of oxygen free radicals produced after ischemia/reperfusion in the mitochondrial signaling pathway has not been clarified. Five minutes of global ischemia was induced in male SOD1-transgenic (Tg) and wild-type (Wt) littermate rats. Cytosolic expression of cytochrome c and Smac and activation of caspases were evaluated by immunohistochemistry, Western blot, and caspase activity assay. Apoptotic cell death was characterized by DNA nick end and single-stranded DNA labeling. In the Wt animals, early superoxide production, mitochondrial release of cytochrome c, Smac, and cleaved caspase-9 were observed after ischemia. Active caspase-3 was subsequently increased, and 85% of the hippocampal CA1 neurons showed apoptotic DNA damage 3 d after ischemia. Tg animals showed less superoxide production and cytochrome c and Smac release. Subsequent active caspase-3 expression was not evident, and only 45% of the neurons showed apoptotic DNA damage. A caspase-3 inhibitor (N-benzyloxycarbonyl-val-ala-asp-fluoromethyl ketone) reduced cell death only in Wt animals. These results suggest that overexpression of SOD1 reduced oxidative stress, thereby attenuating the mitochondrial release of cytochrome c and Smac, resulting in less caspase activation and apoptotic cell death. Oxygen free radicals may play a pivotal role in the mitochondrial signaling pathway of apoptotic cell death in hippocampal CA1 neurons after global ischemia.
Journal of Neuroscience 02/2002; 22(1):209-17. · 6.91 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Following a complete disruption of blood flow to the brain, cerebral ischemia, a specific neuronal population, namely the CA1 pyramidal neurons in the hippocampus, will die a delayed type of cell death. This is often referred to as "delayed neuronal death" (DND). It is not known why it takes around 48 hours for these cells to die. It is very often speculated that events, intrinsic to the CA1 neurons, regulate their demise, whereas it is less often considered that extrinsic mechanisms also could play an important role for the development of DND. We discovered that in addition to the CA1 pyramidal neurons, cells in the choroid plexus were TUNEL (terminaldeoxynucleotidyl-mediated biotin-dUTP nick-end labeling)-positive following transient forebrain global ischemia. The time course and the number of TUNEL-positive cells were determined. A dramatic increase in the number of TUNEL-positive cells in the choroid plexus was seen at 18, 24, and at 36 hours of recovery, but not at 48 hours of recovery following 15 minutes of transient forebrain global ischemia. No TUNEL-positive cells were seen at 24 hours of recovery in the CA1 region. The cell death in the choroid plexus thus preceded the occurrence of cell death in the CA1 region. Massive cell death in the choroid plexus will inevitably lead to a leaky blood-CSF barrier, which in turn will allow substances to enter the ventricular system and from there reach the brain parenchyma. We, therefore, conclude that choroid plexus cell death may adversely affect the outcome of CA1 pyramidal neurons following transient forebrain global ischemia, through, e.g., a disruption of the blood-cerebro spinal fluid barrier. Alternatively, the choroid plexus may produce factors, which can affect the outcome of neurons.
Microscopy Research and Technique 02/2001; 52(1):130-6. · 1.59 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The mitochondrial permeability transition pore is an inducer of cell death. During the reperfusion phase after cerebral ischemia, calcium accumulates in mitochondria, and a burst of free radical formation occurs, conditions that favor the activation of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore. Here the authors demonstrate that a blocker of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore, the nonimmunosuppressive cyclosporin A analogue N-methyl-Val-4-cyclosporin A (10 mg/kg intraperitoneally), administered during reperfusion and at 24 hours of reperfusion, diminishes infarct size in a rat model of transient focal ischemia of 2 hours' duration. The mitochondrial permeability transition pore may be an important target for drugs against stroke.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The time-course of DNA fragmentation in the CA1 region of the hippocampus and the choroid plexus was studied following induction of transient forebrain ischemia under lethal normothermic (37 degrees C), or sublethal hypothermic (33 degrees C) conditions. Oligonucleosomal- and high-molecular-weight DNA fragmentation were analysed by conventional agarose gel electrophoresis and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, respectively. DNA breaks were visualized by the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated biotin-deoxyuridinetriphosphate nick-end labeling method. At 48 h of recovery following normothermic ischemia, in situ labeling of DNA breaks were widespread in medial CA1 and high-molecular-weight DNA cleavage was seen. In contrast, at the same time-point in lateral CA1, many pyknotic but few cells displaying in situ labeling of DNA breaks were observed. Major oligonucleosomal DNA fragmentation was not seen until 72 h of recovery. Following hypothermic ischemia, DNA fragmentation was absent in CA1. DNA fragmentation was seen in the choroid plexus at 24 h of recovery following normothermic ischemia, which was diminished by 48 h of recovery. In conclusion, oligonucleosomal and high-molecular-weight DNA fragmentation at 10-50 kilobase pairs, occur in CA1 after morphological signs, and acidophilia signifying neurodegeneration appear. DNA fragmentation and cell death in the choroid plexus precede neuronal death in CA1 and may play a causative role.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the present study the time-course of DNA fragmentation following insulin-induced hypoglycemia was examined. In situ localization of DNA breaks were studied by the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated biotin-deoxyuridine triphosphate nick-end labelling method, and the temporal profile of DNA-fragmentation by agarose gel electrophoresis. Cell nuclei displayed terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-deoxyuridine triphosphate nick-end labelling within 3 h of recovery following 30 min of a hypoglycemic insult, and DNA from the hippocampus displayed oligonucleosomal fragmentation. Ultrastructural examination of the dentate granule cells showed mitochondrial swelling during the acute phase of the hypoglycemic insult, which preceded the DNA fragmentation seen in the recovery phase. Cyclosporin A but not tacrolimus, prevented mitochondrial swelling and subsequent DNA fragmentation. We conclude that during severe energy deprivation following hypoglycemia, mitochondrial swelling occurs due to mitochondrial permeability transition and that factors are released, which upon recovery can activate processes leading to DNA fragmentation and cell death.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Induction of the mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) has been implicated in cellular apoptosis and in ischemia-reperfusion injury. During MPT, a channel in the inner mitochondrial membrane, the mitochondrial megachannel, opens and causes isolated mitochondria to swell. MPT and mitochondrial swelling is inhibited by cyclosporin A (CsA), which may also inhibit apoptosis in some cells. Treatment with CsA (50 mg/kg, i.v.) showed a robust reduction of brain damage when administered 30 min before insulin-induced hypoglycemic isoelectricity of 30 min duration. Ultrastructural examination of the dentate gyrus revealed a marked swelling of dendrites and mitochondria during the hypoglycemic insult. In CsA-treated animals, mitochondria resumed a normal and contracted appearance during and after the hypoglycemic insult. Treatment with FK 506 (2 mg/kg, i.v.), a compound with immunosuppressive action similar to that of CsA, was not protective. Studies on the swelling kinetics of isolated mitochondria from the hippocampus showed that CsA, but not FK 506, inhibits calcium ion-induced MPT. We conclude that CsA treatment during hypoglycemic coma inhibits the MPT and reduces damage and that mitochondria and the MPT are likely to be involved in the development of hypoglycemic brain damage in the rat.
Journal of Neuroscience 08/1998; 18(14):5151-9. · 6.91 Impact Factor