[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Macromolecular conjugates of tamoxifen could perhaps be used to circumvent some of the limitations of the extensively used breast cancer drug. To test the feasibility of these conjugates, a 4-hydroxytamoxifen analogue was conjugated to a diaminoalkyl linker and then conjugated to activated esters of a poly(methacrylic acid) polymer synthesized by atom transfer radical polymerization. A polymer conjugated to the 4-hydroxytamoxifen analogue with a six-carbon linker showed high affinity for both estrogen receptor alpha and estrogen receptor beta and potent antagonism of the estrogen receptor in cell-based transcriptional reporter assays. These results suggest that the conjugation of 4-hydroxytamoxifen to a polymer results in a macromolecular conjugate that can display ligand in a manner that can be recognized by estrogen receptor and still act as a potent antiestrogen in cells.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The anti-estrogenic drug tamoxifen, which is used therapeutically for treatment and prevention of breast cancer, can lead to the development of thrombosis. We found that tamoxifen rapidly increased intracellular free calcium [Ca2+]i in human platelets from both male and female donors. Thus 10 microM tamoxifen increased [Ca2+]i above the resting level by 197 +/- 19%. Tamoxifen acted synergistically with thrombin, ADP, and vasopressin to increase [Ca2+]i. The anti-estrogen ICI 182780 did not attenuate the effects of tamoxifen to increase [Ca2+]i; however, phospholipase C inhibitor U-73122 blocked this effect. 4-hydroxytamoxifen, a major metabolite of tamoxifen, also increased [Ca2+]i, but other tamoxifen metabolites and synthetic derivatives did not. Three hydroxylated derivatives of triphenylethylene (corresponding to the hydrophobic core of tamoxifen) which are transitional structures between tamoxifen (Ca agonist) and diethylstilbestrol (Ca antagonist) increased [Ca2+]i slightly (6% to 24%) and partially inhibited thrombin-induced [Ca2+]i elevation (68% to 79%). Therefore the dimethylaminoethyl moiety is responsible for tamoxifen being a Ca agonist rather than antagonist. 4-Hydroxytamoxifen and polymer-conjugated derivatives of 4-hydroxytamoxifen increased [Ca2+]i, with similar efficacy. The ability of tamoxifen to increase [Ca2+]i in platelets, leading to platelet activation, and its ability to act synergistically with other platelet agonists may contribute to development of tamoxifen-induced thrombosis.