[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cadmium (Cd2+) is an industrial and environmental metal. The effect of Cd2+ on intracellular free-Ca2+ levels ([Ca2+](i)) and viability in Madin Darby canine kidney cells was explored. Cd2+increased [Ca2+](i) in a concentration-dependent manner with an EC50 of 85 microM. Cd2+-induced Mn2+ entry demonstrated Ca2+ influx. Removal of extracellular Ca2+ decreased the [Ca2+](i) signal by 60%. The [Ca2+](i) signal was inhibited by La3+ but not by L-type Ca2+ channel blockers. In Ca2+-free medium, Cd2+-induced [Ca2+]i signal was abolished by pre-treatment with 1 microM thapsigargin (an endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+pump inhibitor) and 2 microM carbonylcyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP; a mitochondrial uncoupler). Cd2+-induced Ca2+ release was not altered by inhibition of phospholipase C. At concentrations between 10 and 100 microM, Cd2+killed cells in a concentration-dependent manner. The cytotoxic effect of 100 microM Cd2+was reversed by pre-chelating cytosolic Ca2+with BAPTA. Cd2+-induced apoptosis was demonstrated by propidium iodide. Collectively, this study shows that Cd2+ induced a [Ca2+](i) increase in Madin Darby canine kidney cells via evoking Ca2+ entry through non-selective Ca2+ channels, and releasing stored Ca2+ from endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria in a phospholipase C-independent manner.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effect of the endogenous cannabinoid anandamide on cytosolic free Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) and proliferation is largely unknown. This study examined whether anandamide altered Ca(2+) levels and caused Ca(2+)-dependent cell death in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. [Ca(2+)](i) and cell death were measured using the fluorescent dyes fura-2 and WST-1 respectively. Anandamide at concentrations above 5 muM increased [Ca(2+)](i) in a concentration-dependent manner. The Ca(2+) signal was reduced by 78% by removing extracellular Ca(2+). The anandamide-induced Ca(2+) influx was insensitive to L-type Ca(2+) channel blockers and the cannabinoid receptor antagonist AM 251, but was inhibited differently by aristolochic acid, WIN 55,212-2 (a cannabinoid receptor agonist), phorbol ester, GF 109203X and forskolin. After pretreatment with thapsigargin (an endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) pump inhibitor), anandamide-induced Ca(2+) release was inhibited. Inhibition of phospholipase C with U73122 did not change anandamide-induced Ca(2+) release. At concentrations of 100 muM and 200 muM, anandamide killed 50% and 95% cells, respectively. The cytotoxic effect of 100 muM anandamide was completely reversed by pre-chelating cytosolic Ca(2+) with BAPTA. Collectively, in MDCK cells, anandamide induced [Ca(2+)](i) rises by causing Ca(2+) release from endoplasmic reticulum and Ca(2+) influx from extracellular space. Furthermore, anandamide can cause Ca(2+)-dependent cytotoxicity in a concentration-dependent manner.