Matthew P Cufflin

University of Bradford, Bradford, ENG, United Kingdom

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Publications (7)16.99 Total impact

  • Karen M Hampson, Matthew P Cufflin, Edward A H Mallen
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    ABSTRACT: We used adaptive optics to determine the effect of monochromatic aberration dynamics on the level of chaos in the accommodation control system. Four participants viewed a stationary target while the dynamics of their aberrations were either left uncorrected, defocus was corrected, or all aberrations except defocus were corrected. Chaos theory analysis was used to discern changes in the accommodative microfluctuations. We found a statistically significant reduction in the chaotic nature of the accommodation microfluctuations during correction of defocus, but not when all aberrations except defocus were corrected. The Lyapunov exponent decreased from 0.71±0.07 D/s (baseline) to 0.55±0.03 D/s (correction of defocus fluctuations). As the reduction of chaos in physiological signals is indicative of stress to the system, the results indicate that for the participants included in this study, fluctuations in defocus have a more profound effect than those of the other aberrations. There were no changes in the power spectrum between experimental conditions. Hence chaos theory analysis is a more subtle marker of changes in the accommodation control system and will be of value in the study of myopia onset and progression.
    Optics Letters 11/2013; 38(22):4747-9. · 3.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study examined the effect of myopic defocus on visual acuity (VA) over time, with attention being paid to the first point at which blur adaptation had a significant and measurable effect on defocused VA. Visual acuity was sampled at a higher rate than previous studies in order to assess the time course of blur adaptation processes in myopic and emmetropic observers. Participants were 24 normally-sighted observers (12 emmetropes and 12 myopes, median age: 22.5 years). All ametropic participants wore their full refractive correction throughout the experiment. 1 D and 3 D of myopic defocus were introduced in two separate, randomised sessions. Visual acuity was measured using Test Chart 2000 at 2 min intervals over a 30 min session whilst looking through defocus lenses. Recovery clear VA was also measured every 2 min for a further 20 min. Defocused VA was found to improve significantly within 4 min after the introduction of defocus for both 1 D (P < 0.0001) and 3 D conditions (P < 0.0001). The improvements reached a plateau shortly after, with no significant further improvements in defocused VA after 6 min. There were no significant differences found in the temporal blur adaptation profiles between emmetropes and myopes (P = 0.267). Data were fitted with an exponential decay function; the lowest R(2) value for this fit was 0.95. Blur adaptation has a clinically significant and measurable effect on VA within 4 min of exposure to defocus. This finding indicates that the visual system instigates the neural compensatory mechanisms shortly after the appearance of defocus. Our results relate particularly to real-life vision of uncorrected myopes or myopes who remove their correction for part of the day.
    Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics 05/2013; 33(3):305-10. · 1.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study was conducted to investigate whether neural compensation for induced defocus can alter visual resolution in other areas of the human retina beyond the fovea. In certain circumstances, the blur adaptation response may be influenced by refractive status. The effect of blur adaptation on the central 10° of the retina was investigated in 20 normally sighted observers (10 emmetropes and 10 myopes; median age, 21 years). Visual acuity (VA) was measured at the fovea and at five locations of the parafoveal nasal visual field (2°, 4°, 6°, 8°, and 10°) with best corrected distance vision. Myopic defocus of 1 D was introduced, and the same measurements were repeated immediately before and after a 30-minute adaptation. VA declined with increasing eccentricity in the clear, blurred, and blur-adapted viewing conditions. The rate of decline was quantified by the parameter E2, which represents the amount of eccentricity dependence of the acuity task. Foveal and parafoveal VA decreased with the introduction of optical defocus and improved significantly after a period of blur adaptation. The consistent value of E2 in each condition indicated that these changes in VA were not eccentricity dependent. Changes in VA under blurred and blur-adapted conditions were of similar magnitudes in myopic and emmetropic observers. Neural adaptation to blur improves VA under defocused conditions in the parafovea as well as the fovea, indicating that the underlying compensatory mechanism acts across a range of spatial scales and independently of retinal eccentricity. Foveal and parafoveal blur adaptation does not vary with refractive error.
    Investigative ophthalmology & visual science 03/2012; 53(3):1145-50. · 3.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Accurate measurements of ocular biometry and objective refraction are of vital importance to research laboratories working in the area of refractive error development and oculomotor function. A number of commercially available instruments can provide these measurements, and are used in both their intended modes, and with modifications to increase their research utility. A limitation that exists currently is the inability to conduct simultaneous measurements of refractive error or accommodation response, and the axial length of the same eye. In this technical note we provide details of a method to adapt the Zeiss IOLMaster and the Shin-Nippon SRW-5000 infrared optometer to simultaneously measure refraction and axial length. The optical modification used to combine the measurement paths of the IOLMaster and SRW-5000 instruments consists of a narrow band-pass filter, and optical relay to extend the working distance of the IOLMaster, and an electronic system to provide synchronisation between the IOLMaster and the SRW-5000 continuous accommodation recording system. The optical modification was tested on model eyes, and on a cohort of 20 human eyes. The combined system was then used to measure accommodation response and axial length simultaneously in a single participant. Inclusion of the optical modification in the IOLMaster pathway induced a 0.004 mm shift in the average measurement of a calibration eye, and an average difference of 0.001 mm for a cohort of human eyes. For the SRW-5000, inclusion of the modified optics induced a +0.15 D shift in the spherical component of refraction measurements made on a model eye, and an average shift of +0.12 D in the spherical component of measurements made on a cohort of human eyes. Simultaneous measurement of accommodation response and axial length in a single participant revealed that a change in stimulus vergence from 0 to 5 D caused an average accommodation response of 3.89 D, and an average transient axial length change of 0.059 mm. The system described provides a useful method of achieving simultaneous measurements of axial length, objective refraction and accommodation response in a human eye.
    Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics 01/2011; 31(1):100-8. · 1.74 Impact Factor
  • Matthew P Cufflin, Edward A H Mallen
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    ABSTRACT: Adaptation to defocus is known to influence the subjective sensitivity to blur in both emmetropes and myopes. Blur is a major contributing factor in the closed-loop dynamic accommodation response. Previous investigations have examined the magnitude of the accommodation response following blur adaptation. We have investigated whether a period of blur adaptation influences the dynamic accommodation response to step and sinusoidal changes in target vergence. Eighteen subjects (six emmetropes, six early onset myopes, and six late onset myopes) underwent 30 min of adaptation to 0.00 D (control), +1.00 D or +3.00 D myopic defocus. Following this adaptation period, accommodation responses to a 2.00 D step change and 2.00 D sinusoidal change (0.2 Hz) in target vergence were recorded continuously using an autorefractor. Adaptation to defocus failed to influence accommodation latency times, but did influence response times to a step change in target vergence. Adaptation to both +1.00 and +3.00 D induced significant increases in response times (p = 0.002 and p = 0.012, respectively) and adaptation to +3.00 D increased the change in accommodation response magnitude (p = 0.014) for a 2.00 D step change in demand. Blur adaptation also significantly increased the peak-to-peak phase lag for accommodation responses to a sinusoidally oscillating target, although failed to influence the accommodation gain. These changes in accommodative response were equivalent across all refractive groups. Adaptation to a degraded stimulus causes an increased level of accommodation for dynamic targets moving towards an observer and increases response times and phase lags. It is suggested that the contrast constancy theory may explain these changes in dynamic behavior.
    Optometry and vision science: official publication of the American Academy of Optometry 11/2008; 85(10):982-91. · 1.53 Impact Factor
  • Matthew P Cufflin, Charlotte A Hazel, Edward A H Mallen
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the effects of two levels of blur adaptation on visual resolution and steady-state accommodation responses in emmetropes and myopes. Eleven emmetropes (mean refractive error +0.01 +/- 0.31 DS) and 11 early-onset myopes (EOM, mean refractive error -4.44 +/- 1.64 DS) fixated monocularly at 4 m in three trials of 45 min duration with either: optimal refractive correction, +1 DS defocus, or +3 DS defocus. Monocular logMAR visual acuity (VA) was measured at 10 min intervals during each trial, and immediately following completion of the trial. Accommodative stimulus-response function (ASRF), refractive error and pupil size were measured before and after each trial. Blur adaptation was found to have no effect on pupil size or baseline refraction, irrespective of the power of the blurring lens. Adaptation to +1 DS of defocus yielded an improvement in VA of -0.16 +/- 0.07 logMAR and -0.17 +/- 0.11 logMAR in the emmetropes and myopes respectively. An improvement in VA of -0.20 +/- 0.18 logMAR in the emmetropes and -0.26 +/- 0.17 logMAR in the myopes was observed following adaptation to +3 DS of defocus. The changes in acuity became significant following 30 min of exposure to defocus. Blur adaptation was found to have no effect on the ASRF gradient or individual steady-state accommodative responses. Following blur adaptation, visual resolution was found to increase in both emmetropes and myopes. The magnitude of the blur level did not produce significantly different increases in resolution. Blur adaptation failed to affect either the steady-state responses to an accommodative stimulus or ASRF gradient.
    Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics 08/2007; 27(4):353-60. · 1.74 Impact Factor
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    Matthew P Cufflin, Alex Mankowska, Edward A H Mallen
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    ABSTRACT: To determine whether blur adaptation influences blur sensitivity and blur discrimination thresholds in young adult myopes and emmetropes. In addition, to determine whether there is a differential effect of blur adaptation on blur sensitivity and discrimination between refractive error groups. Proximal and distal blur sensitivity thresholds and blur discrimination thresholds were measured under cycloplegia with a Badal optometer in 24 young adult subjects (8 emmetropes [EMM], 8 early-onset myopes [EOM], and 8 late-onset myopes [LOM]). Adaptation to 1 D of myopic refractive blur was then undertaken for 30 minutes. Blur sensitivity and discrimination thresholds were then remeasured. After blur adaptation, blur sensitivity, and blur discrimination thresholds were found to be elevated. Blur adaptation had a significant effect on distal blur sensitivity threshold, with the largest effect being observed in the EOMs. Mean changes in distal blur sensitivity thresholds were EMMs +0.03 +/- 0.14 D, EOMs +0.30 +/- 0.21 D, and LOMs +0.08 +/- 0.13 D. Adaptation to a degraded stimulus modifies the blur detection mechanisms of the visual system in young adults. Depth of focus is expanded by prolonged exposure to defocus. EOMs are more susceptible to this phenomenon than are LOMs and EMMs.
    Investigative Ophthalmology &amp Visual Science 07/2007; 48(6):2932-9. · 3.44 Impact Factor