[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Raman spectra at 298 and 77K and infrared spectra of the uranyl sulfate mineral zippeite from Jáchymov (Joachimsthal), Czech Republic, K(0.6)(H(3)O)0.4[(UO(2))6(SO(4))3(OH)7].8H2O, were studied. Observed bands were tentatively attributed to the (UO(2))2+ and (SO(4))2- stretching and bending vibrations, the OH stretching vibrations of water molecules, hydroxyls and oxonium ions, and H(2)O, oxonium, and delta U-OH bending vibrations. Empirical relations were used for the calculation of U-O bond lengths in uranyl R (A)=f(nu(3) or nu(1)(UO(2))2+). Calculated U-O bond lengths are in agreement with U-O bond lengths from the single crystal structure analysis and those inferred for uranyl anion sheet topology of uranyl pentagonal dipyramidal coordination polyhedra. The number of observed bands supports the conclusion from single crystal structure analysis that at least two symmetrically distinct U6+ (in uranyls) and S6+ (in sulfates), water molecules and hydroxyls may be present in the crystal structure of the zippeite studied. Strong to very weak hydrogen bonds present in the crystal structure of zippeite studied were inferred from the IR spectra.
Spectrochimica Acta Part A Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy 09/2007; 67(5):1220-7. DOI:10.1016/j.saa.2006.10.011 · 2.35 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Raman and infrared spectra of the uranyl oxyhydroxide hydrate: curite is reported. Observed bands are attributed to the (UO2)2+ stretching and bending vibrations, U-OH bending vibrations, H2O and (OH)- stretching, bending and librational modes. U-O bond lengths in uranyls and O-H…O bond lengths are calculated from the wavenumbers assigned to the stretching vibrations. These bond lengths are close to the values inferred and/or predicted from the X-ray single crystal structure. The complex hydrogen-bonding network arrangement was proved in the structures of the curite minerals. This hydrogen bonding contributes to the stability of these uranyl minerals.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The silico-phosphate mineral perhamite has been studied using a combination of electron and vibrational spectroscopy. SEM photomicrographs reveal that perhamite morphology consists of very thin intergrown platelets that can form a variety of habits. Infrared spectroscopy in the hydroxyl-stretching region shows a number of overlapping bands which are observed in the range 3581-3078 cm(-1). These wavenumbers enable an estimation to be made of the hydrogen bond distances in perhamite: 3.176(0), 2.880(5), 2.779(6), 2.749(3), 2.668(1) and 2.599(7)A. Intense Raman bands are observed in the region 1110-1130 and 966-996 cm(-1) and are assigned to the SiO(4) and PO(4) symmetric stretching modes. Other bands are observed in the range 1005-1096 cm(-1) and are attributed to the nu(3) antisymmetric bending modes of PO(4). Some low intensity bands around 874 cm(-1) were discovered and remain unclassified. Bands in the low-wavenumber region are assigned to the nu(4) and nu(2) out-of-plane bending modes of the OSiO and PO(4) units. Raman spectroscopy is a useful tool in determining the vibrational spectroscopy of mixed hydrated multi-anion minerals such as perhamite. Information on such a mineral would be difficult to obtain by other means.
Spectrochimica Acta Part A Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy 08/2007; 67(3-4):604-10. DOI:10.1016/j.saa.2006.07.044 · 2.35 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Raman and infrared spectroscopy has enabled insights into the molecular structure of the sampleite group of minerals. These minerals are based upon the incorporation of either phosphate or arsenate with chloride anion into the structure and as a consequence the spectra refect the bands attributable to these anions, namely phosphate or arsenate with chloride. The sampleite vibrational spectrum reflects the spectrum of the phosphate anion and consists of ν1 at 964, ν2 at 451 cm-1, ν3 at 1016 and 1088 and ν4 at 643, 604, 591 and 557 cm-1. The lavendulan spectrum consists of ν1 at 854, ν2 at 345 cm-1, ν3 at 878 cm-1 and ν4 at 545 cm-1. The Raman spectrum of lemanskiite is different from that of lavendulan consistent with a different structure. Low wavenumber bands at 227 and 210 cm-1 may be assigned to CuCl TO/LO optic vibrations. Raman spectroscopy identified the substitution of arsenate by phosphate in zdenekite and lavendulan.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Raman spectroscopy at 298 and 77 K of bergenite has been used to characterise this uranyl phosphate mineral. Bands at 995, 971 and 961 cm-1 (298 K) and 1006, 996, 971, 960 and 948 cm-1 (77K) are assigned to the nu1(PO4)3- symmetric stretching vibration. Three bands at 1059, 1107 and 1152 cm-1 (298 K) and 1061, 1114 and 1164 cm-1 (77 K) are attributed to the nu3(PO4)3- antisymmetric stretching vibrations. Two bands at 810 and 798 cm-1 (298 K) and 812 and 800 cm-1 (77 K) are attributed to the nu1 symmetric stretching vibration of the (UO2)2+ units. Bands at 860 cm-1 (298 K) and 866 cm-1 (77 K) are assigned to the nu3 antisymmetric stretching vibrations of the (UO2)2+ units. UO bond lengths in uranyls, calculated using the wavenumbers of the nu1 and nu3(UO2)2+ vibrations with empirical relations by Bartlett and Cooney, are in agreement with the X-ray single crystal structure data. Bands at (444, 432, 408 cm-1) (298 K), and (446, 434, 410 and 393 cm-1) (77 K) are assigned to the split doubly degenerate nu2(PO4)3- in-plane bending vibrations. The band at 547 cm-1 (298 K) and 549 cm-1 (77 K) are attributed to the nu4(PO4)3- out-of-plane bending vibrations. Raman bands at 3607, 3459, 3295 and 2944 cm-1 are attributed to water stretching vibrations and enable the calculation of hydrogen bond distances of >3.2, 2.847, 2.740 and 2.637 A. These bands prove the presence of structurally nonequivalent hydrogen bonded water molecules in the structure of bergenite.
Spectrochimica Acta Part A Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy 04/2007; 66(4-5):979-84. DOI:10.1016/j.saa.2006.04.036 · 2.35 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Two sulphate efflorescent evaporite mineral samples from Jaroso, Spain have been studied by scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. SEM by comparison with known minerals shows the evaporite mineral is a mixture of halotrichite and jarosite, whilst the oxidised mineral is predominantly jarosite. SEM characterises the halotrichite as long narrow crystals and the jarosite as distorted rhombohedral crystals. Raman spectra of the sulphates of K, Mg, Fe(II), Fe(III) are compared with the spectra of halotrichite, jarosite and the two sulphate efflorescent samples. The efflorescent sample was proven by Raman spectroscopy to be a mixture of halotrichite and jarosite and the oxidised efflorescent sample to be jarosite and a complex mixture of sulphates.
Spectrochimica Acta Part A Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy 02/2007; 66(1):177-83. DOI:10.1016/j.saa.2006.01.054 · 2.35 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Raman spectra of schmitterite measured at 298 and 77 K are presented and discussed in detail and in part in comparison with published IR spectrum of synthetic schmitterite. U-O bond lengths in uranyls, calculated with the empirical relations RU-O = f[v(1)(UO2)(2+)] angstrom and RU-O = f[v(3)(UO2)(2+)] angstrom, are close to those inferred from the X-ray single crystal structure of synthetic schmitterite and agree also with the data for other natural and synthetic uranyl tellurites. (c) 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Spectrochimica Acta Part A Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy 12/2006; 65(3-4):571-4. DOI:10.1016/j.saa.2005.12.013 · 2.35 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Raman spectra of threadgoldite at 298 and 77K are measured and interpreted for the first time. Bands related the (UO(2))(2+) and (PO(4))(3-) stretching and bending vibrations are tenatively attributed together with the bands assigned to the stretching a and bending vibrations of water molecules and hydroxyls. Hydrogen-bonding network and H(2)O and (OH)(-1) libration modes are mentioned. U-O bond lengths in uranyls are calculated via empirical relations R(U-O)=f[nu(1) and nu(3)(UO(2))(2+)]A. They are comparable to the values inferred from the single crystal structure analysis of threadgoldite.
Spectrochimica Acta Part A Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy 12/2006; 65(3-4):797-801. DOI:10.1016/j.saa.2005.12.043 · 2.35 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Raman spectroscopy at 298 and 77K has been used to study the mineral kamotoite-(Y), a uranyl rare earth carbonate mineral of formula Y(2)(UO(2))(4)(CO(3))(3)(OH)(8).10-11H(2)O. The mineral is characterised by two Raman bands at 1130.9 and 1124.6 cm(-1) assigned to the nu(1) symmetric stretching mode of the (CO(3))(2-) units, while those at 1170.4 and 862.3 cm(-1) (77K) to the deltaU-OH bending vibrations. The assignment of the two bands at 814.7 and 809.6 cm(-1) is difficult because of the potential overlap between the symmetric stretching modes of the (UO(2))(2+) units and the nu(2) bending modes of the (CO(3))(2-) units. Only a single band is observed in the 77K spectrum at 811.6 cm(-1). One possible assignment is that the band at 814.7 cm(-1) is attributable to the nu(1) symmetric stretching mode of the (UO(2))(2+) units and the second band at 809.6 cm(-1) is due to the nu(2) bending modes of the (CO(3))(2-) units. Bands observed at 584 and 547.3 cm(-1) are attributed to water librational modes. An intense band at 417.7 cm(-1) resolved into two components at 422.0 and 416.6 cm(-1) in the 77K spectrum is assigned to an Y(2)O(2) stretching vibration. Bands at 336.3, 286.4 and 231.6 cm(-1) are assigned to the nu(2) (UO(2))(2+) bending modes. U-O bond lengths in uranyl are calculated from the wavenumbers of the uranyl symmetric stretching vibrations. The presence of symmetrically distinct uranyl and carbonate units in the crystal structure of kamotoite-(Y) is assumed. Hydrogen-bonding network related to the presence of water molecules and hydroxyls is shortly discussed.
Spectrochimica Acta Part A Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy 12/2006; 65(3-4):529-34. DOI:10.1016/j.saa.2005.12.004 · 2.35 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A Ni-Co-As ore sample from Cobalt City, Ontario, Canada, was examined with scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis. In addition to cobaltian pararammelsbergite with variable cobalt content, for which Cobalt City is the type locality, and erythrite, one new mineral was observed for this locality. Well-formed crystals of arsenolite, As(2)O(3), were found embedded in what appears to be fibrous spherocobaltite, CoCO(3). Additional information was obtained by Raman microscopy, confirming the identification of the arsenolite. Both are considered to be secondary minerals formed by exposure to air resulting in oxidation and the formation of secondary carbonates.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The mineral allactite [Mn(7)(AsO(4))(2)(OH)(8)] is a basic manganese arsenate which is highly pleochroic. The use of the 633 nm excitation line enables quality spectra of to be obtained irrespective of the crystal orientation. The mineral is characterised by a set of sharp bands in the 770-885 cm(-1) region. Intense and sharp Raman bands are observed at 883, 858, 834, 827, 808 and 779 cm(-1). Collecting the spectral data at 77K enabled better band separation with narrower bandwidths. The observation of multiple AsO(4) stretching bands indicates the non-equivalence of the arsenate anions in the allactite structure. In comparison the infrared spectrum shows a broad spectral profile with a series of difficult to define overlapping bands. The low wavenumber region sets of bands which are assigned to the nu(2) modes (361 and 359 cm(-1)), the nu(4) modes (471, 452 and 422 cm(-1)), AsO stretching vibrations at 331 and 324 cm(-1), and bands at 289 and 271 cm(-1) which may be ascribed to MnO stretching modes. The observation of multiple bands shows the loss of symmetry of the AsO(4) units and the non-equivalence of these units in the allactite structure. The study shows that highly pleochroic minerals can be studied by Raman spectroscopy.
Spectrochimica Acta Part A Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy 12/2006; 65(3-4):623-7. DOI:10.1016/j.saa.2005.12.020 · 2.35 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The two basic nickel carbonate minerals otwayite and paraotwayite have been studied by scanning electron microscopy, EDX, Raman and infrared spectroscopy. The SEM images of paraotwayite show a mesh like structure with many pores. This leads to the suggestion of a paragenetic relationship between otwayite and paraotwayite in which the carbonate is replaced by sulphate. Raman and infrared spectroscopy shows otwayite to contain predominantly carbonate with some sulphate and the paraotwayite sulphate with some carbonate.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The thermal decompositions of hydrotalcites with hexacyanoferrate(II) and hexacyanoferrate(III) in the interlayer have been studied using thermogravimetry combined with mass spectrometery. X-ray diffraction shows the hydrotalcites have a d(003) spacing of 11.1 and 10.9 Å which compares with a d-spacing of 7.9 and 7.98 Å for the hydrotalcite with carbonate or sulphate in the interlayer. XRD was also used to determine the products of the thermal decomposition. For the hydrotalcite decomposition the products were MgO, Fe2O3 and a spinel MgAl2O4. Dehydration and dehydroxylation take place in three steps each and the loss of cyanide ions in two steps.
Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry 09/2006; 86(1). DOI:10.1007/s10973-005-6933-z · 2.04 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The uranyl mineral phurcalite of formula Ca2(UO2)3O2(PO4)2·7H2O from three different origins has been studied by Raman spectroscopy at both room temperature and liquid nitrogen temperature in conjunction with infrared spectroscopy. Raman bands are attributed to the (UO2)2+ symmetric stretching vibrations and are complimented by bands assigned to the (UO2)2+ antisymmetric stretching vibrations. U–O bond lengths in uranyls are calculated from the wavenumbers of observed Raman and infrared bands. Raman and infrared bands are attributed to the (PO4)3− symmetric and antisymmetric stretching vibration. Some alternate attributions of the bands to the (UO2)2+ and (PO4)3− stretching vibrations are given. Coincidences of these bands and also of the bands related to the (PO4)3− bending vibrations and libration modes of water molecules are proposed. Multiple bands in the bending region reflect the complexity of the phurcalite structure, as does the complexity of the 200–300 cm−1 region where the (UO2)2+ bending modes are expected. Three bands observed in the region 1590–1680 cm−1 and assigned to HOH bending modes show the existence of at least three different types of water molecules with different hydrogen bonding strengths in the phurcalite structure. In the case of the mineral sample MR5, infrared bands observed at 3591, 3537, 3516, 3416, 3256 and 3000 cm−1 are related to the OH stretching region bands. This gives rise to hydrogen bond distances of 2.920, 2.809, 2.724 and 2.649 Å.