[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Biopharmaceuticals, such as proteins and DNA, have demonstrated their potential to prevent and cure diseases. The success of such therapeutic agents hinges upon their ability to cross complex barriers in the body and reach their target intact. In order to reap the full benefits of these therapeutic agents, a delivery vehicle capable of delivering cargo to all cell types, both phagocytic and non-phagocytic, is needed. This article presents the synthesis and evaluation of a microparticle delivery vehicle capable of cell penetration and sub-cellular triggered release of an encapsulated payload. pH-sensitive polyacrylamide particles functionalized with a polyarginine cell-penetrating peptide (CPP) were synthesized. The incorporation of a CPP into the microparticles led to efficient uptake by non-phagocytic cells in culture. In addition, the CPP-modified particles showed no cytotoxic effects at concentrations used in this study. The results suggest that these particles may provide a vehicle for the successful delivery of therapeutic agents to various cell types.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The pathogenesis of many lung diseases involves neutrophilic inflammation. Neutrophil functions, in turn, are critically dependent on glucose uptake and glycolysis to supply the necessary energy to meet these functions. In this study, we determined the effects of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1, as well as their potential interaction, on the expression of membrane glucose transporters and on glucose uptake in murine neutrophils. Neutrophils were harvested and purified from C57BL/6 mice and stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the presence or absence of specific p38 and HIF-1 inhibitors. Glucose uptake was measured as the rate of [3H]deoxyglucose (DG) uptake. We identified GLUT-1 in mouse neutrophils, but neither GLUT-3 nor GLUT-4 were detected using Western blot analysis, even after LPS stimulation. LPS stimulation did not increase GLUT-1 protein levels but did cause translocation of GLUT-1 from the cell interior to the cell surface, together with a dose-dependent increase in [3H]DG uptake, indicating that glucose uptake is regulated in these cells. LPS also activated both p38 and the HIF-1 pathway. Inhibitors of p38 and HIF-1 blocked GLUT-1 translocation and [3H]DG uptake. These data suggest that LPS-induced increases in neutrophil glucose uptake are mediated by GLUT-1 translocation to the cell surface in response to sequential activation of neutrophil p38 and HIF-1alpha in neutrophils. Given that neutrophil function and glucose metabolism are closely linked, control of the latter may represent a new target to ameliorate the deleterious effects of neutrophils on the lungs.