[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The stable metabolite of nitric oxide in plasma is NOx, the sum of nitrite plus nitrate. Measures of plasma NOx may provide information about the nitric oxide tonus of the entire endothelium including capillary microvessels. Although data are available for mammalian species, plasma NOx measurements in early vertebrate species are scarce. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that plasma NOx would be similar to the NO in the water environment for fish in early classes (Agnatha and Chondrichthye) and would exceed water NOx levels in the known nitrite-sensitive fish (Osteichthye). Plasma samples were obtained from 18 species of adult fish (n=167) and from their housing or natural water environment. NOx was measured by using chemiluminescence. Plasma NO was detected in all species and ranged from 0.5 nmol/ml (skate) to 453.9 nmol/ml (shortnose gar). Average plasma NOx was significantly higher in sea lamprey than in Atlantic hagfish whereas that of little skate was 3-fold lower than in spiny dogfish shark. Plasma NO differed significantly among early bony fish (paddlefish, pallid sturgeon, gar) yet was similar among modern bony fish, with the exception of rainbow trout. Plasma NOx reflected water NO in only 2 species (hagfish and shark), and levels did not coincide with nitrite sensitivity. This study provides an expanded comparative view of plasma NO, levels across 3 groups of early fish. The data obtained suggest a nitric oxide system in early and modern fish.
Comparative medicine 11/2008; 58(5):431-9. · 1.12 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Experiments were designed to detect and determine differences between nitrite/nitrate concentration ([NOx]) in plasma across 15 species selected from seven classes of vertebrates. Blood collected in syringes was placed immediately into ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA)-containing tubes and was centrifuged. Plasma [NOx] was determined by measurement of chemiluminescence. Across classes of vertebrates, baseline plasma [NOx] ranged from 0.6 to 171.3 nmol/ml. Mean +/- SD plasma [NOx] was highest in a fresh-water, jawless fish (lamprey, 95.5 +/- 9.1 nmol/ml) and lowest in a saltwater cartilaginous fish (skates, 1.1 +/- 0.4 nmol/ml). Both amphibians tested had a wide range in plasma [NOx], which was explained partly by temporal changes during the year. Within the mammalian class, plasma [NOx] ranged from 3.8 to 43.2 nmol/ml. Results of this study indicate that NO is detectable in plasma of all classes of vertebrates and that baseline concentration varies among species.
Comparative medicine 03/2003; 53(1):21-8. · 1.12 Impact Factor