M D Adrian

Eli Lilly, Indianapolis, IN, United States

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Publications (11)48.95 Total impact

  • Bone 01/2009; 44. · 4.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) for the potential treatment of hot flushes is described. (R)-(+)-7,9-difluoro-5-[4-(2-piperidin-1-ylethoxy)phenyl]-5H-6-oxachrysen-2-ol, LSN2120310, potently binds ERalpha and ERbeta and is an antagonist in MCF-7 breast adenocarcinoma and Ishikawa uterine cancer cell lines. The compound is a potent estrogen antagonist in the rat uterus. In ovariectomized rats, the compound lowers cholesterol, maintains bone mineral density, and is efficacious in a morphine dependent rat model of hot flush efficacy.
    Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 03/2006; 49(3):843-6. · 5.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The use of selective estrogen receptor modulators for the treatment of estrogen-dependent diseases in premenopausal women has been hindered by undesirable ovarian stimulation and associated risks of ovarian cysts. We have identified a selective estrogen receptor modulator compound (LY2066948) that is a strong estrogen antagonist in the uterus yet has minimal effects on the ovaries of rats. LY2066948 binds with high affinity to both estrogen receptors and has potent estrogen antagonist activity in human uterine and breast cancer cells. Oral administration of LY2066948 to immature rats blocked uterine weight gain induced by ethynyl estradiol with an ED50 of 0.07 mg/kg. Studies in mature rats demonstrated that LY2066948 decreases uterine weight by 51% after 35 d treatment, confirming potent uterine antagonist activity over several estrous cycles. This strong uterine response contrasted with the minimal effects on the ovaries: serum estradiol levels remained within the normal range, whereas histologic evaluation showed granulosa cell hyperplasia in few of the rats. Bone studies demonstrated that LY2066948 prevented ovariectomy-induced bone loss and treatment of ovary-intact rats caused no bone loss, confirming estrogen receptor agonist skeletal effects. Collectively, these data show that LY2066948 exhibits a tissue-specific profile consistent with strong antagonist activity in the uterus, agonist activity in bone, and minimal effects in the ovaries.
    Endocrinology 11/2005; 146(10):4524-35. · 4.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A detailed analysis of the differential effects of estrogen (E) compared to raloxifene (Ral), a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM), following estrogen receptor (ER) binding in gynecological tissues was conducted using gene microarrays, Northern blot analysis, and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 2 activity studies. We profiled gene expression in the uterus following acute (1 day) and prolonged daily (5 wk) treatment of E and Ral in ovariectomized rats. Estrogen regulated twice as many genes as Ral, largely those associated with catalysis and metabolism, whereas Ral induced genes associated with cell death and negative cell regulation. Follow-up studies confirmed that genes associated with matrix integrity were differentially regulated by Ral and E at various time points in uterine and vaginal tissues. Additional experiments were conducted to determine the levels of MMP2 activity in uterus explants from ovariectomized rats following 2 wk of treatment with E, Ral, or one of two additional SERMs: lasofoxifene, and levormeloxifene. Both E and lasofoxifene stimulated uterine MMP2 activity to a level twofold that of Ral, whereas levormeloxifene elevated MMP2 activity to a level 12-fold that of Ral. These data show that one of the significant differences between E and Ral signaling in the uterus is the regulation of genes and proteins associated with matrix integrity. This may be a potential key difference between the action of SERMs in the uterus of postmenopausal women.
    Biology of Reproduction 05/2005; 72(4):830-41. · 4.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: For selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs), the orientation of the basic side chain relative to the SERM core has a significant impact on function. The synthesis and biological evaluation of two series of SERMs are disclosed, where the ligand side chain is constrained to adopt a defined orientation. Compounds where the side chain is forced into the plane of the SERM core have a different profile compared to those compounds where the side chain is pseudo-orthogonal, particularly with regard to antagonism of estradiol action on an Ishikawa uterine cell line.
    Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters 11/2004; 14(20):5103-6. · 2.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The pharmacology and SAR of representative equine estogens is described. 17alpha-Dihydroequilenin was found to prevent bone loss after 5 weeks of oral administration to ovariectomized rats. The stereochemical significance of the D-ring and the C/D ring juncture was investigated with a series of benzothiophene-based equilenin analogues.
    Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters 04/2004; 13(24):4281-4. · 2.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Selective estrogen receptor modulators are an emerging class of pharmaceutically important molecules. Many compounds in this class contain an aminoethoxyaryl moiety attached to a polycyclic framework at an asymmetric carbon atom. To assess whether this carbon atom can be replaced by nitrogen, we have employed a Ninomiya enamide photocyclization for the rapid synthesis of a novel N-arylbenzophenanthridine framework, 4. Further elaboration of 4 into a new structural class of achiral, nonsteroidal estrogen receptor modulators is described.
    Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 09/2001; 44(17):2857-60. · 5.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Body weight, uteri, serum cholesterol and bones were shown previously in vivo to be sensitive to circulating levels of estrogen, as well as to synthetic, nonsteroidal ligands termed selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERM). In this study, we examined the in vivo effects of a new potent SERM on these tissues in 6-month-old, ovariectomized rats that were orally dosed with 0.0001-10 mg/kg/day LY353381.HCl for 5 weeks. LY353381.HCl prevented the ovariectomy-induced increase in body weight and serum cholesterol levels of treated rats and lowered them to below sham levels in a dose dependent manner, with maximum efficacy similar to estrogen or raloxifene. However, LY353381.HCl was consistently more potent than raloxifene, with a half maximal efficacious dose of 0.001 mg/kg for the reduction of body weight and cholesterol. In the uterus, LY353381.HCl had marginal effects on uterine weight compared to ovariectomized controls (OVX) like raloxifene, but unlike estrogen. Histological examination of uterine epithelial cell height showed little to no stimulatory effect of LY353381.HCl on the endometrium. Quantitative computed tomographic analyses (pQCT) of tibiae showed that LY353381.HCl prevented loss of bone due to ovariectomy with an ED50 of about 0.01 mg/kg with maximal efficacy observed at 0.1-1 mg/kg/day. Maximally attainable bone mineral density and content with LY353381.HCl were not significantly different from Sham or ovariectomized rats treated with estrogen or raloxifene. Interestingly, assessment of bone quality by biomechanical analyses showed that LY353381.HCl preserved the strength of the femora neck and midshaft, while improving the Young's modulus of cortical bone to beyond estrogen, raloxifene or sham levels. In uteri of immature rats treated with estrogen, LY353381.HCl antagonized the estrogen-induced elevation in uterine weight down to vehicle-dosed control levels with ED50 of 0.03 mg/kg/day. Therefore, LY353381.HCl was 30-100 times more potent than raloxifene in preventing ovariectomy effects on body weight, serum cholesterol and bone, while maintaining estrogen antagonist effects on the uterus. These animal data suggest that LY353381.HCl may have advantages over estrogen or raloxifene in the prevention of bone loss and treatment of other tissues in postmenopausal women.
    Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 11/1998; 287(1):1-7. · 3.89 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The substituted triphenylethylene antiestrogen clomiphene (CLO) prevents cancellous bone loss in ovariectomized (OVX'd) rats. However, CLO is a mixture of two stereoisomers, enclomiphene (ENC) and zuclomiphene (ZUC), which have distinctly different activities on reproductive tissues and tumor cells. The purpose of the present dose response study was to determine the effects of ENC and ZUC on nonreproductive estrogen target tissues. These studies were performed in 7-month-old female rats with moderate cancellous osteopenia that was established by ovariectomizing rats 1 month before initiating treatment. OVX resulted in increases in body weight, serum cholesterol, endocortical resorption, and indices of cancellous bone turnover, as well as decreases in uterine weight, uterine epithelial cell height, bone mineral density, bone strength, and cancellous bone area. Estrogen treatment for 3 months restored body weight, uterine histology, dynamic bone measurements, and osteoblast and osteoclast surfaces in OVX'd rats to the levels found in the age-matched sham-operated rats. In contrast, estrogen only partially restored cancellous bone volume and uterine weight, and it reduced serum cholesterol to subnormal values. CLO was a weak estrogen agonist on uterine measurements and a much more potent agonist on body weight, serum cholesterol, and dynamic bone measurements. CLO increased trabecular thickness in osteopenic rats and was the most effective treatment in improving cancellous bone volume and architecture. ZUC was a potent estrogen agonist on all tissues investigated and had dose-dependent effects. In contrast, ENC had dose-dependent effects on most measurements similar to CLO and decreased the uterotrophic effects of ZUC. It is concluded that ENC antagonizes the estrogenic effects of ZUC on the uterus but that the beneficial effects of CLO on nonreproductive tissues in OVX'd rats is conferred by both isomers. Furthermore, the combined actions of the two isomers on bone volume and architecture were more beneficial than either isomer given alone.
    Endocrinology 10/1998; 139(9):3712-20. · 4.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The 2-arylbenzothiophene raloxifene, 1, is a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) which is currently under clinical evaluation for the prevention and treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. In vivo structure-activity relationships and molecular modeling studies have indicated that the orientation of the basic amine-containing side chain of 1, relative to the stilbene plane, is an important discriminating factor for the maintenance of tissue selectivity. We have constructed a series of analogues of 1 in which this side chain is held in an orientation which is orthogonal to the stilbene plane, similar to the low-energy conformation predicted for raloxifene. Herein, we report on the synthesis of these compounds and on their activity in a series of in vitro and in vivo biological assays reflective of the SERM profile. In particular, we describe their ability to (1) bind the estrogen receptor, (2) antagonize estrogen-stimulated proliferation of MCF-7 cells in vitro, (3) stimulate TGF-beta3 gene expression in cell culture, (4) inhibit the uterine effects of ethynyl estradiol in immature rats, and (5) potently reduce serum cholesterol and protect against osteopenia in ovariectomized (OVX) rats without estrogen-like stimulation of uterine tissue. These data demonstrate that one of these compounds, LY357489,4, is among the most potent SERMs described to date with in vivo efficacy on bone and cholesterol metabolism in OVX rats at doses as low as 0.01 mg/kg/d.
    Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 04/1998; 41(8):1272-83. · 5.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The 2-arylbenzothiophene raloxifene, 1, is a selective estrogen receptor modulator which is currently under clinical evaluation for the prevention and treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. A series of raloxifene analogs which contain modifications to the 2-arylbenzothiophene core have been prepared and evaluated for the ability to bind to the estrogen receptor and inhibit MCF-7 breast cancer cell proliferation in vitro. Their ability to function as tissue-selective estrogen agonists in vivo has been assayed in a short-term, ovariectomized (OVX) rat model with end points of serum cholesterol lowering, uterine weight gain, and uterine eosinophil peroxidase activity. These studies have demonstrated that (1) the 6-hydroxy and, to a lesser extent, the 4'-hydroxy substituents of raloxifene are important for receptor binding and in vitro activity, (2) small, highly electronegative 4'-substituents such as hydroxy, fluoro, and chloro are preferred both in vitro and in vivo, (3) increased steric bulk at the 4'-position leads to increased uterine stimulation in vivo, and (4) additional substitution of the 2-aryl moiety is tolerated while additional substitution at the 4-, 5-, or 7-position of the benzothiophene results in reduced biological activity. In addition, compounds in which the 2-aryl group is replaced by alkyl, cycloalkyl, and naphthyl substituents maintain a profile of in vitro and in vivo biological activity qualitatively similar to that of raloxifene. Several novel structural variants including 2-cyclohexyl, 2-naphthyl, and 6-carbomethoxy analogs also demonstrated efficacy in preventing bone loss in a chronic OVX rat model of postmenopausal osteopenia, at doses of 0.1-10 mg/kg.
    Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 02/1997; 40(2):146-67. · 5.61 Impact Factor