[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: B virus, a natural pathogen of macaques, can cause a fatal zoonotic disease in humans. Serologic screening of macaques by titration ELISA (tELISA, screening test) and by Western blot analysis (WBA, confirmatory test) is one of the principle measures to prevent human infection. Here we slightly modified these 2 tests and reevaluated their correlation. We developed a high-throughput tELISA and used it to screen 278 sera simultaneously against the homologous BV antigen and the heterologous antigens of Papiine herpesvirus 2 and Human herpesvirus 1. More sera (35.6%) were positive by the BV-ELISA than by the HVP2-ELISA (21.6%) or HSV1-ELISA (19.8%). The superiority of the homologous tELISA over the heterologous tELISA was prominent in low-titer sera. WBA confirmed only 21% of the tELISA-positive sera with low or intermediate antibody titers. These sera might have contained antibodies to conformational epitopes that could not be detected by WBA, in which denatured antigens are used, but that could be detected by tELISA, which detects both linear and conformational epitopes. WBA confirmed 82% of the tELISA high-titer sera. However, WBA defined the remaining 18% of sera, which were negative by tELISA, as nonnegative. This finding can be attributed to the difficulties encountered with the subjective interpretation of results by WBA. Together, the current results indicate the inadequacy of WBA as a confirmatory assay for sera with low antibody titers.
Comparative medicine 01/2012; 62(6):516-26. · 1.12 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: B virus (cercopithecine herpesvirus 1) is the only deadly alphaherpesvirus that is zoonotically transmissible from macaques to humans. The detection of humoral immune responses is the method of choice for the rapid identification of B virus-infected animals. We evaluated the diagnostic potential of recombinant B virus glycoproteins for the detection of immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies in monkey and human sera. Glycoproteins B, C, and E and secreted (sgG) and membrane-associated (mgG) segments of glycoprotein G (gG) were expressed in the baculovirus expression system, while gD was expressed in CHO cells. We developed recombinant protein-based IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) and compared their diagnostic efficacies by using B virus antibody-negative (n = 40) and -positive (n = 75) macaque sera identified by a whole antigen-based ELISA and Western blotting. The diagnostic sensitivities of the gB-, gC-, gD-, and mgG-ELISAs were 100, 97.3, 88.0, and 80.0%, respectively. The specificities of the gB-, gC-, and gD-ELISAs and of the mgG-ELISA were 100 and 97.5%, respectively. In contrast, the sensitivities and specificities of sgG- and gE-ELISAs were low, suggesting that sgG and gE are less effective diagnostic antigens. Sera from nonmacaque monkeys cross-reacted with gB, gC, and gD, and only baboon sera reacted weakly with mgG. Human herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1)- and HSV-2-positive sera pools reacted with gB and gD, whereas sera from B virus-infected individuals reacted with all four antigens. These data indicate that gB, gC, gD, and mgG have a high diagnostic potential for B virus serodiagnosis in macaques, whereas mgG may be a valuable antigen for discrimination between antibodies induced by B virus and those induced by other, closely related alphaherpesviruses, including HSV-1 and -2.
Journal of Clinical Microbiology 03/2005; 43(2):620-8. · 4.07 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A TaqMan based real-time PCR assay was developed for rapid detection and quantitation of herpes B virus (Cercopithecine herpesvirus 1) in clinical samples. The assay utilizes B virus-specific primers and a probe to the non-conserved region of the gG gene to discriminate B virus from closely related alphaherpesviruses. Fifty copies of B virus DNA could be detected with 100% sensitivity with a wide range of quantitation spanning 6 logs. The assay was highly reproducible with intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation of 0.6 and 2.4%, respectively. Clinical utility of the developed real-time PCR was evaluated by testing genomic DNA prepared from B virus clinical isolates (n=23) and human and monkey clinical specimens (n=62). This novel method was also compared with conventional cell culture with respect to sensitivity and specificity. TaqMan PCR assay was shown to be equally specific and more sensitive than culture method (culture vs. PCR sensitivity 50%) and was able to identify all B virus clinical isolates tested. Fast, reliable assessment of B virus DNA in infected cells and tissues makes real-time PCR assay a valuable tool for diagnosis and management of B virus infections.
Journal of Virological Methods 06/2003; 109(2):245-51. · 1.90 Impact Factor