[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Only 29 cases of constitutional 9q22 deletions have been published and all have been sporadic. Most associate with Gorlin syndrome or nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS, MIM #109400) due to haploinsufficiency of the PTCH1 gene (MIM *601309).
We report two mentally retarded female siblings and their cognitively normal father, all carrying a similar 5.3 Mb microdeletion at 9q22.2q22.32, detected by array CGH (244 K). The deletion does not involve the PTCH1 gene, but instead 30 other gene,s including the ROR2 gene (MIM *602337) which causing both brachydactyly type 1 (MIM #113000) and Robinow syndrome (MIM #268310), and the immunologically active SYK gene (MIM *600085). The deletion in the father was de novo and FISH analysis of blood lymphocytes did not suggest mosaicism. All three patients share similar mild dysmorphic features with downslanting palpebral fissures, narrow, high bridged nose with small nares, long, deeply grooved philtrum, ears with broad helix and uplifted lobuli, and small toenails. All have significant dysarthria and suffer from continuous middle ear and upper respiratory infections. The father also has a funnel chest and unilateral hypoplastic kidney but the daughters have no malformations.
This is the first report of a familial constitutional 9q22 deletion and the first deletion studied by array-CGH which does not involve the PTCH1 gene. The phenotype and penetrance are variable and the deletion found in the cognitively normal normal father poses a challenge in genetic counseling.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Submicroscopic copy-number imbalances contribute significantly to the genetic etiology of human disease. Here, we report a novel microduplication hot spot at Xp11.22 identified in six unrelated families with predominantly nonsyndromic XLMR. All duplications segregate with the disease, including the large families MRX17 and MRX31. The minimal, commonly duplicated region contains three genes: RIBC1, HSD17B10, and HUWE1. RIBC1 could be excluded on the basis of its absence of expression in the brain and because it escapes X inactivation in females. For the other genes, expression array and quantitative PCR analysis in patient cell lines compared to controls showed a significant upregulation of HSD17B10 and HUWE1 as well as several important genes in their molecular pathways. Loss-of-function mutations of HSD17B10 have previously been associated with progressive neurological disease and XLMR. The E3 ubiquitin ligase HUWE1 has been implicated in TP53-associated regulation of the neuronal cell cycle. Here, we also report segregating sequence changes of highly conserved residues in HUWE1 in three XLMR families; these changes are possibly associated with the phenotype. Our findings demonstrate that an increased gene dosage of HSD17B10, HUWE1, or both contribute to the etiology of XLMR and suggest that point mutations in HUWE1 are associated with this disease too.
The American Journal of Human Genetics 03/2008; 82(2):432-43. · 11.20 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report clinical, neuropsychological and molecular findings in affected males and carrier females in the fourth reported family with mental retardation caused by mutation in the PAK3 gene (Xq22.3-q23), W446S. In contrast to previous reports, carrier females manifested learning problems and mild mental disability. Skewed X-inactivation was observed here for the first time in carriers of PAK3 mutation. Neuropsychological tests in affected males and carrier females suggested a common neuropsychological profile of impaired spatial cognitive abilities and defects in attentional and executive functions. The five affected males examined herein had a proportionally small head size or microcephaly, large ears, oral motor hypotonia with drooling and inarticulate speech and short attention span, anxiety, restlessness, and aggression. Brain imaging showed signs of chronic non-progressive hydrocephalus in one patient who manifested psychosis and fluctuant gait deterioration, while two other patients showed no abnormalities. EEG recordings were available from four affected males and one carrier female, and all showed similar posterior slow wave activity without epileptic discharges. Only one affected male in the family suffered from epilepsy. When comparing the affected males in this family and the three previously reported families with mental retardation due to a PAK3 mutation, similarities in their characteristics were small head size or microcephaly, large ears, speech defects, behavioral abnormalities, and psychiatric disease.
American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A 11/2007; 143A(20):2406-16. · 2.30 Impact Factor