Mario A Guzmán

Aragon Health Sciences Institute, Caesaraugusta, Aragon, Spain

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Publications (14)44.71 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Selection of the most stable reference gene is critical for a reliable interpretation of gene expression data using RT-PCR. In order so, 17 commonly used genes were analyzed in Wistar rat duodenum, jejunum, ileum and liver following a fat gavage and at two time periods. These reference genes were also tested in liver from Zucker (fa/fa) on a long-term dietary trial. Four strategies were used to select the most suitable reference gene for each tissue: ranking according to biological coefficient of variation and further validation by statistical comparison among groups, geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper programs. No agreement was observed among these approaches for a particular gene, nor a common gene for all tissues. Furthermore we demonstrated that normalising using an inadequate reference conveyed into false negative and positive results. The selection of genes provided by BestKeeper resulted in more reliable results than the other statistical packages. According to this program, Tbp, Ubc, Hprt and Rn18s were the best reference genes for duodenum, jejunum, ileum and liver, respectively following a fat gavage in Wistar rats and Rn18s for liver in another rat strain on a long-term dietary intervention. Therefore, BestKeeper is highly recommendable to select the most stable gene to be used as internal standard and the selection of a specific reference expression gene requires a validation for each tissue and experimental design.
    Journal of Biotechnology 02/2011; 151(4):325-34. · 3.18 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Liver has been proposed as a gatekeeper that regulates postprandial lipemia and a potential target for regulation by acute intake of virgin olive oil. To characterize the hepatic gene expression response to a fat gavage, male rats were fed a bolus of 5 ml of extra-virgin olive oil and the hepatic mRNA expression analyzed 4 hours later using DNA microarrays. To provide an initial screening of candidate genes, only twenty one with remarkably modified expression between both conditions (signal log2 ratio > 2.5 or < -2.5) were considered and confirmed by quantitative real time PCR. Those that presented biological significance were also analyzed 8 hours after the experimental approach. Hepatic A2m Slc13a5 and Nrep mRNA expressions were found significantly changed in both studied conditions and showed the highest significant associations with postprandial plasma triglycerides and lack of association with basal triglyceridemia. These results highlight new gene regulation in liver by postprandial triglyceridemia and will help to understand the complex human pathology providing the involvement of hepatic proteins and new strategies to cope with postprandial metabolism.
    Frontiers in bioscience (Elite edition) 01/2011; 3:11-21.
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    ABSTRACT: Genetic and dietary hyperhomocysteinemia has been found to decrease high density lipoproteins (HDL) and their apolipoprotein A1 (APOA1). To test the hypothesis that the presence of cysteine could normalize HDL levels in hyperhomocysteinemic cystathionine beta-synthase (Cbs)-deficient mice and that the inclusion of glycine would block this effect. Lipids and HDL cholesterol were studied in Cbs-deficient mice and wild-type animals fed a low-methionine diet supplemented with cysteine and glycine and in Cbs-deficient mice on the same diet supplemented only with cysteine. Triglyceride and homocysteine levels were significantly decreased and increased, respectively in Cbs-deficient mice irrespective of treatment. However, plasma cholesterol, glucose and APOA1 were significantly decreased in homozygous Cbs-deficient mice when they received the cysteine and glycine-enriched beverage. This group of mice also showed decreased mRNA levels and increased hepatic content of APOA1 protein, the latter increase was observed in endothelial cells. A significant, inverse relationship was observed between plasma and hepatic APOA1 concentrations while a positive one was found between plasma levels of cysteine and APOA1. These data suggest an altered hepatic management of APOA1 and that cysteine may be involved in the control of this apolipoprotein at this level. Overall these findings represent a new aspect of dietary regulation of HDL at the hepatic transendothelial transport.
    Atherosclerosis 09/2010; 212(1):268-73. · 3.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Since the hepatic mitogen, liver growth factor (LGF), improves vascular structure and function in a hypertensive rat model and exhibits antioxidant activity, it may play a role in the development of atherosclerosis. To test this hypothesis, 14 male and 11 female apolipoprotein E (apoE)-deficient mice with a C57BL/6J genetic background were injected intraperitoneally twice a week with 1.7 microg of LGF per mouse for ten weeks. Plasma carbohydrates, inflammatory and lipid parameters, apolipoproteins A-I and A-II and paraoxonase activity were assessed at the end of the experimental period. Histological and chemical analyses of the livers and quantification of aortic atherosclerotic lesions were also carried out. LGF administration changed neither plasma lipid nor inflammatory parameters. ApoA-I and arylesterase activity were not affected by LGF either, while apoA-II decreased significantly in males but not in females. Plasma apoA-II correlated positively with liver fat in males but negatively in females. Atherosclerotic area lesions in males receiving LGF were 25% lower than in control mice. Likewise, a significant reduction of fatty liver disease was also observed in males in association with decreased levels of insulin, leptin and resistin. These results indicate that administration of LGF modulates atherosclerotic lesions in a sex-dependent manner. This effect is independent of plasma cholesterol, triglycerides, IL-6, MCP-1 and TNF-alpha and is related to a remodelling of HDL particles characterised by a decrease in apoA-II induced by changes in hepatic mRNA expression. Hence, LGF administration could be used as a safe alternative to control fatty liver disease and atherosclerosis in males.
    Histology and histopathology 05/2010; 25(5):609-18. · 2.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Homocysteine is an amino acid whose plasma levels are associated with the development of vascular, neurologic and reproductive diseases. Plasma levels show a wide range of values according to age, sex, race and other environmental factors. The present review discusses homocysteine metabolism and physiopathology and the clinical consequences of increased levels of this substance.Special emphasis has been placed on the use of mice as an experimental animal model in this field, since their use has unveiled the contribution of dietary modifications on plasma homocysteine levels. These findings, together with the generation of genetically-modified mice as models of hyperhomocysteinemia, are allowing rapid progress to be made in the characterization of the in vivo molecular mechanisms of homocysteine action. Crosses among these genetically-modified mice and others with different deleted genes will increase knowledge of the influence of the combination of several risk factors on pathological development. In these models, research into new environmental or pharmacological factors may yield results that could explain epidemiological findings in humans and help in the design of new treatments for specific clinical settings.
    Clínica e Investigación en Arteriosclerosis. 01/2010; 22(5).
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    ABSTRACT: LA419 is a novel nitric oxide-donor with antioxidant properties. The effect of this compound on the development of atherosclerosis was investigated in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice. Male mice were randomized to receive vehicle or 5 mg/kg/day LA419 for 12 weeks. At the end of this period, plasma lipid and lipoprotein parameters, oxidative stress markers and hepatic fat, and mRNA levels were measured as well as en face and cross-sectional lesion areas of the aorta. Data showed that LA419 administration reduced atherosclerotic foci and cross-sectional lesion areas by decreasing the intimae presence of macrophage-derived foam cells despite an increase in plasma cholesterol. This agent induced a significant reduction in body weight gain and mass of adipose tissue. Furthermore, compared with placebo, LA419 administration significantly reduced plasma triglycerides and apolipoprotein C-III levels as well as systemic oxidative stress, estimated by plasma 8-isoprostane. Conversely, nonesterified fatty acid and HDL cholesterol levels remained unchanged, as well as apolipoproteins A-I, A-IV, and B and paraoxonase activity. Plasma triglycerides were significantly associated with plasma levels of apolipoprotein C-III and hepatic Fsp27 mRNA expression. These results indicate that administration of LA419 modulates lesion development. These actions are partly independent of total cholesterol as well as HDL particles and related to triglyceridemia and oxidative stress. Hypotriglyceridemia is associated with an equal number of apoB-containing particles. Hence, LA419 administration could be used as a safe alternative to control the metabolic syndrome and atherosclerosis.
    Archiv für Experimentelle Pathologie und Pharmakologie 01/2009; 379(5):489-500. · 2.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Double heterozygous mice lacking one allele of Cbs and Apoa1 develop hyperhomocysteinemia and hypoalphalipoproteinemia together with moderate hypertension. To study the influence of the genetic background into this specific phenotype, four groups of male mice were established: control and double heterozygous groups in C57BL/6J and in C57BL/6J x 129 backgrounds, respectively. Nitric oxide levels, systolic blood pressure, plasma lipid parameters, arylesterase activity and aorta histology were analyzed as well as oligonucleotide array hybridization of liver RNA. Results demonstrated that double heterozygous mice in C57BL/6J substrate had a milder phenotype showing lower increase in blood pressure compared to double heterozygous group in hybrid background. The severity of the phenotype in the latter group was associated with lower nitric oxide and arylesterase activity levels, and hyperplasia of the vascular media layer. Hepatic profiling of both genetic substrates showed profound differences in expression of contractile proteins that could explain these pathological findings. In summary, the phenotypic presentation of hypertension is associated with multiple processes from vascular bedside to liver as evidenced by nitric oxide production or paraoxonase levels.
    Frontiers in Bioscience 02/2008; 13:5155-62. · 3.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To test the hypothesis that extra virgin olive oils from different cultivars added to Western diets might behave differently than palm oil in the development of atherosclerosis, apoE-deficient mice were fed diets containing different cultivars of olive oil for 10 weeks. Female mice were assigned randomly to one of the following five groups: (1-4) fed chow diets supplemented with 0.15% (w/w) cholesterol and 20% (w/w) extra virgin olive oil from the Arbequina, Picual, Cornicabra, or Empeltre cultivars, and (5) fed a chow diet supplemented with 0.15% cholesterol and 20% palm oil. Compared to diets containing palm oil, a Western diet supplemented with one of several varieties of extra virgin olive oil decreased atherosclerosis lesions, reduced plaque size, and decreased macrophage recruitment. Unexpectedly, total plasma paraoxonase activity, apoA-I, plasma triglycerides, and cholesterol played minor roles in the regulation of differential aortic lesion development. Extra virgin olive oil induced a cholesterol-poor, apoA-IV-enriched lipoparticle that has enhanced arylesterase and antioxidant activities, which is closely associated with reductions in atherosclerotic lesions. Given the anti-atherogenic properties of extra virgin olive oil evident in animal models fed a Western diet, clinical trials are needed to establish whether these oils are a safe and effective means of treating atherosclerosis.
    Atherosclerosis 11/2007; 194(2):372-82. · 3.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Oils enriched in monounsaturated fatty acids do not seem to behave similarly in protecting against the development of atherosclerosis in animal models, which has been attributed to the presence of soluble phenolic compounds. To test the relevance of other components of oils in the prevention of atherosclerosis, two olive oils from the same cultivar devoid of soluble phenolic compounds were prepared using different procedures (pressure or centrifugation), characterized and fed to apolipoprotein E-deficient mice as 10% (w/w) of their diet. The 2 olive oils had similar levels of monounsaturated fatty acids and squalene, but they differed in their content of linoleic, phytosterols, tocopherols, triterpenes and waxes, which were particularly enriched in the test olive oil obtained by centrifugation. In mice that received a diet enriched in the olive oil derived through centrifugation, the progression of atherosclerosis was delayed compared to the mice that received standard olive oil. That effect was associated with decreases in plasma triglycerides, total and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and isoprostane 8-iso-prostaglandin F(2alpha). Our results clearly indicate that the preparation of olive oil is crucial in determining its antiatherosclerotic effect, which extends beyond the presence of phenolic compounds. The test olive oil exerted its antiatherosclerotic effects by modifying plasma lipids and oxidative stress, and it might be a good candidate to replace other fats in functional foods.
    The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry 07/2007; 18(6):418-24. · 4.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Folic acid is a vitamin that when used as a dietary supplementation can improve endothelial function. To assess the effect of folic acid on the development of atherosclerosis, male apolipoprotein E-deficient mice fed a standard chow diet received either water (control group) or an aqueous solution of folic acid that provided a dose of 75 microg/kg/day, for ten weeks. At the time of sacrifice, blood was drawn and the heart removed. The study measured plasma homocysteine, lipids, lipoproteins, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation, isoprostane, paraoxonase, and apolipoproteins, and aortic atherosclerotic areas. In folic acid-treated animals, total cholesterol, mainly carried in very low-density and low-density lipoproteins, increased significantly, and homocysteine, HDL cholesterol, paraoxonase, and triglyceride levels did not change significantly. Plasma isoprostane and apolipoprotein (apo) B levels decreased. The resistance of LDL to oxidization and plasma apoA-I and apoA-IV levels increased with a concomitant decrease in the area of atherosclerotic lesions. The administration of folic acid decreased atherosclerotic lesions independently of plasma homocysteine and cholesterol levels, but was associated with plasma levels of apolipoproteins A-I, A-IV and B, and decreased oxidative stress.
    Life Sciences 02/2007; 80(7):638-43. · 2.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Research suggests that conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) may inhibit atherosclerosis, but there are contradictory results in different animal models fed heterogeneous mixtures of CLA isomers. This study addressed the hypothesis that the individual CLA isomers may exert different atherogenic properties. ApoE(-/-) mice were fed isocaloric, isonitrogenous westernized diets containing 0.15% cholesterol and enriched with 1% (w/w) cis-9,trans-11-CLA (c9,t11-CLA), trans-10,cis-12-CLA (t10,c12-CLA) or linoleic acid (control diet) for 12 weeks. At the end of the dietary intervention, the effects of CLA isomers on the development of atherosclerotic vascular lesions, lipid metabolism, inflammation and oxidative stress were assessed. The t10,c12-CLA diet had a profound pro-atherogenic effect, whereas c9,t11-CLA impeded the development of atherosclerosis. En face aortic lesion assessment showed more dorsal and lumbar extensions presenting atherosclerotic foci after the t10,c12-CLA diet. Furthermore, animals fed t10,c12-CLA had pronounced hyperlipidemia, higher 8-iso-prostaglandin F(2alpha) levels, higher vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque with a lower smooth muscle and fibre contents and higher macrophage content and activation, assayed as plasma chitotriosidase compared to the control or c9,t11-CLA dietary groups. Plasma chitotriosidase activity was more closely associated with the extent of the plaque than with MOMA staining or than monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 levels. Our results demonstrate that CLA isomers differentially modulate the development of atherosclerosis, c9,t11-CLA impedes, whereas t10,c12-CLA promotes atherosclerosis. These opposing effects may be ascribed to divergent effects on lipid, oxidative, inflammatory and fibro muscular components of this pathology. Plasma chitotriosidase is a better indicator of dietary fat interventions that alter plaque monocyte activity in this murine model.
    Atherosclerosis 01/2007; 189(2):318-27. · 3.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In human reproduction, hyperhomocysteinemia has been reported as a risk factor for early pregnancy loss and congenital birth defects. Hyperhomocysteinemia is also recognized as a cause of maternal obstetric complications such as preeclampsia. The role of plasma hyperhomocysteinemia in female fertility was examined using cystathionine beta synthase knockout (cbs KO) mice. Cbs KO females were infertile, showed alterations in the estrus cycle and an increased progesterone response during pseudo-pregnancy induction. Both cbs KO ovaries and ovulated oocytes showed no major morphological alterations. However, placental and uterine masses were decreased at day 18 of pregnancy and showed morphological abnormalities. In cbs-KO pregnant females, the number of uterine implantation sites was not decreased despite the low number of surviving embryos. Fertility was restored when cbs-deficient ovaries were transplanted to normal ovarectomized recipients. We detected an increased uterine expression of Grp78, a marker of endoplasmic reticulum stress, which was accompanied by the decreased levels of uterine cbs mRNA in both hyperhomocysteinemic heterozygous (fertile) and homozygous (non-fertile) females. Our results indicate that cbs -/- female infertility is a consequence of the uterine failure and demonstrate that uterine endoplasmic reticulum stress and cbs expression are not determinant of infertility, suggesting that uterine dysfunction is a consequence of either hyperhomocysteinemia or other factor(s) in the uterine environment of cbs -/- animals. In summary, these studies demonstrate the potential importance of homocysteine levels for uterine handling of embryos.
    Human Molecular Genetics 12/2006; 15(21):3168-76. · 7.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Trans-10, cis-12-conjugated linoleic acid (CLA)-enriched diets promote atherosclerosis in mice despite increasing blood concentrations of HDL cholesterol. This suggests that under these conditions, the HDL apolipoproteins (apo) produced are abnormal. To test this hypothesis, apoE-deficient mice were fed a Western-type diet enriched with linoleic acid (control), cis-9, trans-11-CLA or trans-10, cis-12-CLA (1.0% wt/wt) for 12 wk, and the effects on HDL metabolism and apoC-III levels recorded. Compared with the control and cis-9, trans-11-CLA mice, those fed the trans-10, cis-12-CLA diet had significantly higher HDL cholesterol concentrations, and had a higher incidence of hypertriglyceridemia and hepatic steatosis. Plasma apoA-I and paraoxonase concentrations were significantly lower in the trans-10, cis-12-CLA group than in the cis-9, trans-11-CLA group. These reductions were associated with decreased hepatic expression of these proteins and a shift toward lipid-poor apolipoprotein particles. The plasma apoA-II concentration increased with its corresponding mRNA concentration in the liver, and was preferentially bound to HDL in the trans-10, cis-12-CLA mice, thus explaining the increased HDL cholesterol concentrations in this group. Significant, positive associations were found between apoA-II and C-III (r=0.883, P<0.001) and between apoA-II and atherosclerosis (r=0.68, P<0.001). These results indicate that trans-10, cis-12-CLA intake modifies HDL to form a proatherogenic apoA-II containing particle and promotes phenotypic changes compatible with metabolic syndrome. Cis-9, trans-11-CLA does not promote this detrimental effect.
    Journal of Nutrition 03/2006; 136(2):353-9. · 4.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To test the hypothesis that cholesterol might suppress the beneficial effect of olive oil in atherosclerosis, we fed apoE KO mice diets containing extra virgin olive oil, either with or without cholesterol, for 10 weeks and assessed the development of atherosclerosis. Within each sex, mice were assigned randomly to one of the following four experimental groups: (1) a standard chow diet, (2) a chow diet supplemented with 0.1% cholesterol (w/w) cholesterol, (3) a chow diet enriched with 20% (w/w) extra virgin olive oil and (4) a chow diet containing 0.1% cholesterol and 20% extra virgin olive oil. On the standard chow diet, average plasma cholesterol levels were higher in males than in females. Olive oil- and cholesterol-enriched diets, separately or in combination, induced hypercholesterolemia in both sexes, and abolished the difference between the sexes in plasma cholesterol levels. The addition of cholesterol to chow or olive oil diets decreased apolipoprotein A-I significantly in females and serum paraoxonase activities in males. The latter activity was higher in females than in males. In both sexes, the size of aortic atherosclerotic lesions was similar in olive oil- and chow-fed animals and smaller than in cholesterol-supplemented groups. Size of aortic lesions were positively correlated with circulating paraoxonase activity, particularly in males, and the relationship remained after adjusting for apolipoprotein A-I and HDL cholesterol levels. Our results demonstrate that the nutritional regulation of paraoxonase is an important determinant of atherosclerotic lesions dependent on sex. They also suggest that the mere inclusion of olive oil in Western diets is insufficient and the adoption of Mediterranean diet would be more effective in retarding the development of atherosclerotic lesions.
    Atherosclerosis 10/2005; 182(1):17-28. · 3.71 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

188 Citations
44.71 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2010
    • Aragon Health Sciences Institute
      Caesaraugusta, Aragon, Spain
  • 2005–2009
    • University of Zaragoza
      • Departamento de Bioquímica y Biología Molecular y Celular
      Zaragoza, Aragon, Spain
  • 2006
    • Trinity College Dublin
      • Department of Clinical Medicine
      Dublin, L, Ireland