[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The continuous contamination of surface waters by pharmaceuticals is of most environmental concern. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are drugs currently prescribed for the treatment of depressions and other psychiatric disorders and then, they are among the pharmaceuticals that can occur in environmental waters. Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry has been applied to the extraction of five SSRIs--venlafaxine, fluvoxamine, fluoxetine, citalopram and sertraline--from water samples. Some of the analytes were not efficiently extracted as underivatized compounds and so, an in situ acetylation step was introduced in the sample preparation procedure. Different parameters affecting extraction efficiency such as extraction mode, fiber coating and temperature were studied. A mixed-level fractional factorial design was also performed to simultaneously study the influence of other five experimental factors. Finally, a method based on direct SPME at 100 degrees C using polydimethylsiloxane-divinylbenzene fibers is proposed. The performance of the method was evaluated, showing good linearity and precision. The detection limits were in the sub-ng/mL level. Practical applicability was demonstrated through the analysis of real samples. Recoveries obtained for river water and wastewater samples were satisfactory in all cases. An important aspect of the proposed method is that no matrix effects were observed. Two of the target compounds, venlafaxine and citalopram, were detected and quantified in a sewage water sample.
Journal of Chromatography 09/2004; 1046(1-2):241-7. · 4.61 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Two cosmetic ingredients (galaxolide, tonalide), eight pharmaceuticals (carbamazepine, diazepam, diclofenac, ibuprofen, naproxen, roxithromycin, sulfamethoxazole and iopromide) and three hormones (estrone, 17beta-estradiol and 17alpha-ethinylestradiol) have been surveyed along the different units of a municipal Sewage Treatment Plant (STP) in Galicia, NW Spain. Among all the substances considered, significant concentrations in the influent were only found for the two musks (galaxolide and tonalide), two anti-inflammatories (ibuprofen and naproxen), two natural estrogens (estrone, 17beta-estradiol), one antibiotic (sulfamethoxazole) and the X-ray contrast medium (iopromide), where the other compounds studied were below the limit of quantification. In the primary treatment, only the fragrances (30-50%) and 17beta-estradiol (20%) were partially removed. On the other hand, the aerobic treatment (activated sludges) caused an important reduction in all compounds detected, between 35% and 75%, with the exception of iopromide, which remained in the aqueous phase. The overall removal efficiencies within the STP ranged between 70-90% for the fragrances, 40-65% for the anti-inflammatories, around 65% for 17beta-estradiol and 60% for sulfamethoxazole. However, the concentration of estrone increased along the treatment due to the partial oxidation of 17beta-estradiol in the aeration tank.
Water Research 08/2004; 38(12):2918-26. · 4.66 Impact Factor