Mariangela Giannini

São Paulo State University, San Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil

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Publications (18)5.01 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Objective. To evaluate the effectiveness of surgery in treating primary varicose veins in the lower limbs by photoplethysmography (PPG) and duplex mapping (DM). Method. Forty-eight lower limbs were clinically evaluated according to the CEAP classification system and subjected to PPG and DM exams. Each limb had a venous refill time (VRT) of <20 seconds and a normal deep vein system (DVS) by DM. Results. The mean pre- and postoperative VRTs were 13.79 and 26.43 seconds, respectively (P < 0.0001). After surgery, 42 limbs (87.50%) had normal results by PPG (VRT > 20 seconds). Four limbs (8.33%) showed improved VRTs, but the VRTs did not reach 20 seconds. In the 2 limbs (4.17%) that maintained their original VRTs, the DM exams showed the presence of insufficient perforating veins. Conclusion. In most cases, PPG allows for a satisfactory evaluation of the outcome of varicose vein surgery.
    International journal of vascular medicine 01/2014; 2014:562782.
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    ABSTRACT: A veia safena magna autóloga é o melhor substituto arterial nas revascularizações dos membros inferiores, importante na revascularização do miocárdio e pode ser utilizada nas cirurgias do sistema venoso e nos traumas das extremidades. A fleboextração aumenta os riscos de lesões linfáticas e neurológicas. Assim, no tratamento das varizes primárias dos membros inferiores por meio da cirurgia ou de outras técnicas, a preservação da safena é recomendável se ela for normal ou apresentar alterações que ainda permitam sua preservação pela correção da causa desencadeante. Tal correção pode ser feita por técnicas cirúrgicas. Entre elas, a cura hemodinâmica da insuficiência venosa em ambulatório (CHIVA) tem mostrado bons resultados. Recentemente, um ensaio clínico randomizado e controlado foi publicado comprovando sua eficácia. Outra técnica bastante utilizada é a da ligadura rasante da junção safenofemoral + crossectomia + ligadura das tributárias de crossa, com a qual se tem obtido resultados contraditórios. Finalmente, as técnicas que corrigem a insuficiência da safena reparando as valvas ostial e pré-ostial (valvoplastia externa) são mais fisiológicas. Um ensaio clínico internacional multicêntrico, randomizado e controlado, testando um novo dispositivo, está sendo realizado, com resultados iniciais favoráveis. Este estudo pretende fazer uma revisão sobre as técnicas utilizadas na preservação da safena magna.
    Jornal Vascular Brasileiro 06/2009; 8(2):154-165.
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    Jornal Vascular Brasileiro 01/2009; 8(2).
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    ABSTRACT: This study aimed at assessing the accuracy of ultrasound (US) in the diagnosis of recent deep vein thrombosis (DVT) in an experimental study in dogs. Design: blinded and randomized experimental study. Twenty dogs were randomly divided in two groups: control group (CG) and thrombosis group (TG). US was performed in the pre- and postoperative period. Phlebography was performed immediately prior to the postoperative US. After the second US, a surgery was performed to detect whether thrombus was present or not. US results were compared to those of phlebography and surgical findings. In all dogs, inferior vena cava (IVC) was compressible. The relations of IVC diameter with the aorta were higher (P<0.005) in TG than in CG. Spectral Doppler in spontaneous breathing, tissue harmonic imaging, power Doppler and B flow showed sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of 1. Phlebography presented sensitivity of 90%, specificity of 80% and accuracy of 85%, when compared to surgical finding. For the diagnosis of recent DVT in the experimental model used, venous compressibility proved to be inefficient. The ratio of IVC diameter to aorta, when increased, suggests thrombosis. The use of new US technological advances increases accuracy. Phlebography was less accurate than US.
    International angiology: a journal of the International Union of Angiology 12/2008; 27(6):466-74. · 1.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Este estudo apresenta resultados preliminares obtidos com um novo filtro permanente de veia cava, baseado no desenho de Greenfield, com três hastes prolongadas de um total de seis, para dar estabilidade central ao filtro na luz da veia cava. Neste artigo, relatamos sua avaliação clínica preliminar quanto à aplicabilidade, eficácia e segurança. De agosto de 2004 a dezembro de 2006, 15 filtros foram implantados em nove homens e seis mulheres, com idades variando de 38 a 79 anos (média de 57,8 anos). O acesso foi feito sempre por via transjugular. As indicações foram: trombose venosa proximal, com contra-indicação de anticoagulação em 12 pacientes; complicações hemorrágicas com anticoagulação em dois pacientes; e embolia pulmonar, apesar de anticoagulação adequada, em um paciente. Os filtros foram avaliados quanto à liberação, inclinação, mau posicionamento e perfuração de cava. No seguimento, avaliou-se trombose no local de acesso, tromboembolismo venoso recorrente, migração do filtro e trombose de cava pelo ultra-som. Nenhum paciente recebeu anticoagulantes no seguimento. O filtro foi liberado com sucesso em todos os casos sem mau posicionamento, inclinação, perfuração ou trombose de acesso. Os pacientes foram seguidos entre 3 e 23 meses (média de 11 meses). Nenhum paciente teve recorrência de tromboembolismo venoso. Não houve casos de trombose de veia cava ou migração do filtro. Óbito ocorreu em sete casos, todos relacionados com a moléstia de base. Os resultados preliminares indicam potencial eficácia e segurança do uso do novo filtro no período estudado.
    Jornal Vascular Brasileiro 09/2008; 7(3):282-288.
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    Jornal Vascular Brasileiro 03/2007; 6(1):7-16.
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    ABSTRACT: Clinical evaluation of lower limbs of patients with venous insufficiency alone may not identify involved systems or anatomical sites, thus complementary tests are needed. These tests can be invasive or noninvasive. Invasive tests, such as phlebography and ambulatory venous pressure, despite being accurate, may produce discomfort and complications. Some of the most used noninvasive tests are continuous wave Doppler ultrasound, photoplethysmography, air plethysmography and duplex scanning. Doppler ultrasound assesses blood flow velocity indirectly. Photoplethysmography assesses venous refilling time, providing an objective parameter of venous reflux quantification. Air plethysmography allows quantification of reduction in venous capacitance, reflux and performance of the calf muscle pump. Duplex is considered a gold standard among noninvasive methods, because it allows quantitative and qualitative evaluation, supplying anatomical and functional information, thus providing a more complete and detailed evaluation of both deep and superficial venous system.
    Jornal Vascular Brasileiro 01/2007; 6(3).
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    ABSTRACT: Arteriovenous fistula with adequate blood flow is extremely important for patients with chronic renal insufficiency undergoing hemodialysis. Steal syndrome is a complication of arteriovenous fistula, but it is rare and its treatment is directly indicated when there are associated symptoms. Although many treatments have been proposed for its repair in the upper limbs, distal revascularization and interval ligation is currently the treatment of choice. This original case report describes the treatment of steal syndrome secondary to arteriovenous fistula in the lower limb, which was successfully treated using the same procedure described for the upper limbs.
    Jornal Vascular Brasileiro 01/2007; 6(3).
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    ABSTRACT: To compare the efficacy and safety of a low molecular weight heparin (enoxaparin) with unfractionated heparin (UH) in this prophylaxis. Seventy five patients (59 men and 16 women), undergoing major lower extremity amputation (30 above-knee and 45 below-knee), were randomized to be treated with subcutaneous UH (5,000 IU t.i.d.) or enoxaparin (40 mg/day) during hospitalization. Prophylaxis was started 12 hours before surgery or, in emergency cases, in the first postoperative day. The two groups were comparable with regard to baseline characteristics. Evaluation of DVT was performed by daily clinical examination and by duplex scanning before and 5 to 8 days after surgery. DVT was documented in the operated limb in 9.75% in patients treated with enoxaparin and in 11.76% in patients treated with UH (p=0.92) and there was one bilateral thrombosis in each group . Bleeding complications were not observed in both groups. Enoxaparin and UH were both efficient and safe for the prophylaxis of DVT in patients submitted to lower extremity amputation.
    Acta Cirurgica Brasileira 01/2006; 21(3):184-6. · 0.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To review the predisposing factors and the evolution of upper-extremity deep vein thrombosis in a series of cases. METHODS: Fifty-two consecutive patients (29 men and 23 women, mean age of 52.3 years) with upper-extremity deep vein thrombosis documented by duplex scan (71.1%), phlebography (11.1%) or clinically (15.6%) were included in the study. RESULTS: Clinical manifestations were: forearm pain (24 cases - 46.1%), arm pain (27 cases - 51.9%), upper limb edema (45 cases - 86.5%), pain to arm compression (36 cases - 70.2%) and to arm movement (32 cases - 61.7%). Main risk factors were: vein puncture (20 cases - 39.1%), and cancer (16 cases - 32.6%). Deep vein thrombosis involved humeral (n = 18), axillary (n = 27), subclavian (n = 15) and jugular (n = 11) veins. Pulmonary embolism was initially present in four cases (7.6%). Initial therapy included unfractionated heparin, intravenous (64.3%), subcutaneous (16.7%) or low molecular weight heparin (17.1%) administration, followed by warfarin. Twelve patients died before discharge from the hospital, due to causes not related to pulmonary embolism. The remaining 40 patients were followed-up for a period of 3 months to 10 years. Two died of causes not related to pulmonary embolism, one developed post-thrombotic sequels, such as residual edema and limitations to upper limb movement, and six had discrete residual symptoms (edema and pain). CONCLUSIONS: Upper-extremity deep vein thrombosis was more frequent in patients submitted to venous access and with active neoplasia. The outcome of patients exclusively treated with oral anticoagulant was at least similar to other treatments proposed in the literature.
    Jornal Vascular Brasileiro 09/2005; 4(3):275-282.
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    Mariangela Giannini
    Jornal Vascular Brasileiro 09/2005; 4(3):314-314.
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    ABSTRACT: The diagnosis of symptomatic deep vein thrombosis is well established using duplex scanning, with a sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 98% for proximal deep vein thrombosis, and 94% sensitivity and 75% specificity for distal deep vein thrombosis. In the early and asymptomatic deep vein thrombosis, diagnosis by duplex scanning is not well established yet, which shows a decrease in the accuracy of this diagnostic method. This is because the fresh thrombus is not occlusive, has the same echogenicity as blood and a reduced consistency, jeopardizing the compressibility test, which is the most sensitive test for deep vein thrombosis. This article will review published articles, which evaluated the accuracy of the duplex scanning in the diagnosis of asymptomatic deep vein thrombosis.
    Jornal Vascular Brasileiro 09/2005; 4(3):290-296.
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    Jornal Vascular Brasileiro 01/2005; 4(3).
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    ABSTRACT: The diagnosis of symptomatic deep vein thrombosis is well established using duplex scanning, with a sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 98% for proximal deep vein thrombosis, and 94% sensitivity and 75% specificity for distal deep vein thrombosis. In the early and asymptomatic deep vein thrombosis, diagnosis by duplex scanning is not well established yet, which shows a decrease in the accuracy of this diagnostic method. This is because the fresh thrombus is not occlusive, has the same echogenicity as blood and a reduced consistency, jeopardizing the compressibility test, which is the most sensitive test for deep vein thrombosis. This article will review published articles, which evaluated the accuracy of the duplex scanning in the diagnosis of asymptomatic deep vein thrombosis.
    Jornal Vascular Brasileiro 01/2005; 4(3).
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    ABSTRACT: Extrinsic compression of the popliteal artery and absence of surrounding anatomical abnormalities characterize the functional popliteal artery entrapment syndrome (PAES). The diagnosis is confirmed to individuals who have typical symptoms of popliteal entrapment and occlusion or important stenosis of the popliteal artery with color duplex sonography (CDS), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or arteriography during active plantar flexion-extension maneuvers. However, variable result findings in normal asymptomatic subjects have raised doubts as to the validity of these tests. The purpose of this study was to compare the frequency of popliteal artery compression in 2 groups of asymptomatic subjects, athletes and non-athletes. Forty-two individuals were studied. Twenty-one subjects were indoor soccer players, and 21 were sedentary individuals. Physical activity was evaluated through questionnaires, anthropometric measurements, and cardiopulmonary exercise test. Evaluation of popliteal artery compression was performed in lower limbs with CDS, ankle-brachial index (ABI) measurements and continuous wave Doppler of the posterior tibial artery. The athletes studied fulfilled the criteria of high level of physical activity whereas sedentary subjects met the criteria of low level of activity. Popliteal artery compression was observed with CDS in 6 (14.2%) studied subjects; 2 of whom (4.7%) were athletes and 4 (9.5%) were non-athletes. This difference was not statistically significant (p=0.21). Doppler of the tibial arteries and ABI measurements gave good specificity and sensibility in the identification of popliteal artery compression. The frequency of popliteal artery compression during maneuvers in normal subjects was 14.2% irrespective of whether or not they performed regular physical activities. Both Doppler and ABI showed good agreement with CDS and should be considered in screening popliteal arteries in individuals suspected of PAES.
    International angiology: a journal of the International Union of Angiology 10/2004; 23(3):218-29. · 1.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Duplex scanning has been used in the evaluation of the aorta and proximal arteries of the lower extremities, but has limitations in evaluating the arteries of the leg. The utilization of ultrasonographic contrast (USC) may be helpful in improving the quality of the image in these arteries. The objective of the present study was to verify whether the USC increases the diagnostic accuracy of patency of the leg arteries and if it diminishes the time needed to perform duplex scanning. Twenty patients with critical ischemia (20 lower extremities) were examined by standard duplex scanning, duplex scanning with contrast and digital subtraction arteriography (DSA). The 3 arteries of the leg were divided into 3 segments, for a total of 9 segments per limb. Each segment was evaluated for patency in order to compare the 3 diagnostic methods. Comparison was made between standard duplex scanning and duplex scanning with contrast in terms of quality of the color-coded Doppler signal and of the spectral curve, and also of the time to perform the exams. Duplex scanning with contrast was similar to arteriography in relation to patency diagnosis (p>0.3) and even superior in some of the segments. Standard duplex scanning was inferior to arteriography and to duplex scanning with contrast (p<0.001). There were improvements of 70% in intensity of the color-coded Doppler signal and 76% in the spectral curve after the utilization of contrast. The time necessary to perform the examinations was 23.7 minutes for standard duplex scanning and 16.9 minutes for duplex scanning with contrast (p<0.001). The use of ultrasonographic contrast increased the accuracy of the diagnosis of patency of leg arteries and diminished the time necessary for the execution of duplex scanning.
    International angiology: a journal of the International Union of Angiology 09/2004; 23(3):263-9. · 1.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: The application of a diagnostic strategy based on a clinical model associated with duplex scanning (DS) may allow for a safer and more effective/cost-effective diagnosis of deep venous thrombosis (DVT). Objective: To evaluate the clinical model proposed by Wells et al. associated with DS and verify the occurrence of DVT in patients divided into probability of presenting the disease, and assess the possibility of reducing the number of repeated DS based on the results obtained. Methods: Suspected DVT patients were accordingly categorized into groups of low, moderate and high DVT probability (LP, MP and HP). The patients were then submitted to DS and those without DVT were rescheduled to repeat the examination in 24-48 hours and in 7 days. Patients positively diagnosed with DVT received proper treatment. All patients without DVT were summoned to return within 3 months. Conclusion: The results suggest that for patients with LP for DVT and negative DS, follow-up exams are not needed, since the occurrence of DVT was low in this group. This procedure simplifies the diagnostic process.
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: To review the predisposing factors and the evolution of upper-extremity deep vein thrombosis in a series of cases. Methods: Fifty-two consecutive patients (29 men and 23 women, mean age of 52.3 years) with upper-extremity deep vein thrombosis documented by duplex scan (71.1%), phlebography (11.1%) or clinically (15.6%) were included in the study. Results: Clinical manifestations were: forearm pain (24 cases - 46.1%), arm pain (27 cases - 51.9%), upper limb edema (45 cases - 86.5%), pain to arm compression (36 cases - 70.2%) and to arm movement (32 cases - 61.7%). Main risk factors were: vein puncture (20 cases - 39.1%), and cancer (16 cases - 32.6%). Deep vein thrombosis involved humeral (n = 18), axillary (n = 27), subclavian (n = 15) and jugular (n = 11) veins. Pulmonary embolism was initially present in four cases (7.6%). Initial therapy included unfractionated heparin, intravenous (64.3%), subcutaneous (16.7%) or low molecular weight heparin (17.1%) administration, followed by warfarin. Twelve patients died before discharge from the hospital, due to causes not related to pulmonary embolism. The remaining 40 patients were followed-up for a period of 3 months to 10 years. Two died of causes not related to pulmonary embolism, one developed post-thrombotic sequels, such as residual edema and limitations to upper limb movement, and six had discrete residual symptoms (edema and pain). Conclusions: Upper-extremity deep vein thrombosis was more frequent in patients submitted to venous access and with active neoplasia. The outcome of patients exclusively treated with oral anticoagulant was at least similar to other treatments proposed in the literature.