Maria Carmen Inda

Complutense University of Madrid, Madrid, Madrid, Spain

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Publications (4)29.13 Total impact

  • M C Inda, J DeFelipe, A Muñoz
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    ABSTRACT: Chandelier cells represent a unique type of cortical gamma-aminobutityric acidergic interneuron whose axon terminals (Ch-terminals) only form synapses with the axon initial segments of some pyramidal cells. Here, we have used immunocytochemistry for the high-affinity plasma membrane transporter GAT-1 and the calcium-binding protein parvalbumin to analyze the morphology and distribution of Ch-terminals in the mouse cerebral cortex and claustroamygdaloid complex. In general, 2 types of Ch-terminals were distinguished on the basis of their size and the density of the axonal boutons that made up the terminal. Simple Ch-terminals were made up of 1 or 2 rows of labeled boutons, each row consisting of only 3-5 boutons. In contrast, complex Ch-terminals were tight cylinder-like structures made up of multiple rows of boutons. Simple Ch-terminals were detected throughout the cerebral cortex and claustroamygdaloid complex, the complex type was only occasionally found in certain regions, whereas in others they were very abundant. These results indicate that there are substantial differences in the morphology and distribution of Ch-terminals between different areas and layers of the mouse cerebral cortex. Furthermore, we suggest that the distribution of complex Ch-terminals may be related to the developmental origin of the different brain regions analyzed.
    Cerebral Cortex 05/2008; 19(1):41-54. · 6.83 Impact Factor
  • M C Inda, J Defelipe, A Muñoz
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    ABSTRACT: Chandelier cells represent a unique type of cortical GABAergic interneuron whose axon terminals (Ch-terminals) form synapses exclusively with the axon initial segments of pyramidal cells. In this study, we have used immunocytochemistry for the high-affinity plasma membrane transporter-1 (GAT-1) to analyze the distribution and density of Ch-terminals in various cytoarchitectonic and functional areas of the human neocortex. The lowest density of GAT-1-immuoreactive (-ir) Ch-terminals was detected in the primary and secondary visual (areas 17 and 18) and in the somatosensory areas (areas 3b and 1). In contrast, an intermediate density was observed in the motor area 4 and the associative frontolateral areas 45 and 46, whereas the associative frontolateral areas 9 and 10, frontal orbitary areas 11, 12, 13, 14, and 47, associative temporal areas 20, 21, 22, and 38, and cingulate areas 24 and 32 displayed the highest density of GAT-1-ir Ch-terminals. Despite these differences, the laminar distribution of GAT-1-ir Ch-terminals was similar in most cortical areas. Hence, the highest density of this transporter was observed in layer II, followed by layers III, V, VI, and IV. In most cortical areas, the density of GAT-1-ir Ch-terminals was positively correlated with the neuronal density, although a negative correlation was detected in layer III across all cortical areas. These results indicate that there are substantial differences in the distribution and density of GAT-1-ir Ch-terminals between areas and layers of the human neocortex. These differences might be related to the different functional attributes of the cortical regions examined.
    Cerebral Cortex 10/2007; 17(9):2060-71. · 8.30 Impact Factor
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    Maria Carmen Inda, Javier DeFelipe, Alberto Muñoz
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    ABSTRACT: The axon initial segment (AIS) of pyramidal cells is a critical region for the generation of action potentials and for the control of pyramidal cell activity. Here we show that Na+ and K+ voltage-gated channels, together with other molecules involved in the localization of ion channels, are distributed asymmetrically in the AIS of pyramidal cells situated in the human temporal neocortex. There is a high density of Na+ channels distributed along the length of the AIS together with the associated proteins spectrin betaIV and ankyrin G. In contrast, Kv1.2 channels are associated with the adhesion molecule Caspr2, and they are mostly localized to the distal region of the AIS. In general, the distal region of the AIS is targeted by the GABAergic axon terminals of chandelier cells, whereas the proximal region is innervated, mostly by other types of GABAergic interneurons. We suggest that this molecular segregation and the consequent regional specialization of the GABAergic input to the AIS of pyramidal cells may have important functional implications for the control of pyramidal cell activity.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 03/2006; 103(8):2920-5. · 9.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The detailed microanatomical study of the human cerebral cortex began in 1899 with the experiments of Santiago Ramón y Cajal, who applied the Golgi method to define the structure of the visual, motor, auditory and olfactory cortex. In the first article of this series, he described a special type of interneuron in the visual cortex capable of exerting its influence in the vertical dimension. These neurons are now more commonly referred to as double-bouquet cells (DBCs). The DBCs are readily distinguished owing to their characteristic axons that give rise to tightly interwoven bundles of long, vertically oriented axonal collaterals resembling a horsetail (DBC horsetail). Nevertheless, the most striking characteristic of these neurons is that they are so numerous and regularly distributed that the DBC horsetails form a microcolumnar structure. In addition, DBCs establish hundreds of inhibitory synapses within a very narrow column of cortical tissue. These features have generated considerable interest in DBCs over recent years, principally among those researchers interested in the analysis of cortical circuits. In the present chapter, we shall discuss the morphology, synaptic connections and neurochemical features of DBCs that have been defined through the study of these cells in different cortical areas and species. We will mainly consider the immunocytochemical studies of DBCs that have been carried out in the visual cortex (areas 17 and 18) of human and macaque monkey. We will see that there are important differences in the morphology, number and distribution of DBC horsetails between areas 17 and 18 in the primate. This suggests important differences in the microcolumnar organization between these areas, the functional significance of which awaits detailed correlative physiological and microanatomical studies.
    Progress in brain research 02/2006; 154:15-32. · 4.19 Impact Factor