[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Caveolae are invaginations in the plasma membrane that depend on caveolins and cavins for maturation. Here, we investigated the pulmonary phenotype in mice lacking cavin-1. Bright field and electron-microscopy showed that the cavin-1-deficient mice lacked caveolae in the lung, had an increased lung tissue density, and exhibited hypertrophic remodeling of pulmonary arteries. The right ventricle of the heart moreover had an increased mass and the right ventricular pressure was elevated. A microarray analysis revealed upregulation of Arg1 and downregulation of Ddah1, molecules whose altered expression has previously been associated with pulmonary arterial hypertension. Taken together, this work demonstrates vascular remodeling and increased pulmonary blood pressure in cavin-1 deficient mice and associates this phenotype with altered expression of Arg1 and Ddah1.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Stretch of the vascular wall is an important stimulus to maintain smooth muscle contractile differentiation that is known to depend on L-type calcium influx, Rho-activation, and actin polymerization. The role of microRNAs in this response was investigated using tamoxifen-inducible and smooth muscle-specific Dicer KO mice. In the absence of Dicer, which is required for microRNA maturation, smooth muscle microRNAs were completely ablated. Stretch-induced contractile differentiation and Rho-dependent cofilin-2 phosphorylation were dramatically reduced in Dicer KO vessels. On the other hand, acute stretch-sensitive growth signaling, which is independent of influx through L-type calcium channels, was not affected by Dicer KO. Contractile differentiation induced by the actin polymerizing agent jasplakinolide was not altered by deletion of Dicer, suggesting an effect upstream of actin polymerization. Basal and stretch-induced L-type calcium channel expressions were both decreased in Dicer KO portal veins, and inhibition of L-type channels in control vessels mimicked the effects of Dicer deletion. Furthermore, inhibition of miR-145, a highly expressed microRNA in smooth muscle, resulted in a similar reduction of L-type calcium channel expression. This was abolished by the Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II inhibitor KN93, suggesting that Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IIδ, a target of miR-145 and up-regulated in Dicer KO, plays a role in the regulation of L-type channel expression. These results show that microRNAs play a crucial role in stretch-induced contractile differentiation in the vascular wall in part via miR-145-dependent regulation of L-type calcium channels.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 04/2012; 287(23):19199-206. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Caveolae are 50-100 nm large membrane invaginations that play a role in cellular signaling. The aim of the present study was to assess whether muscarinic M₃ receptors and the K(ATP) channel subunit Kir6.1 are associated with human detrusor caveolae, and to pharmacologically assess the relevance of this organization for contractility. Detrusor strips were dissected and used in ultrastructural, biochemical and mechanical studies. Caveolae were manipulated by cholesterol desorption using mβcd (methyl-β-cyclodextrin). Mβcd disrupted caveolae and caused a cholesterol-dependent ~3-fold rightward shift of the concentration-response curve for the muscarinic receptor agonist carbachol. The effect of mβcd was inhibited by the K(ATP) blockers glibenclamide, repaglinide and PNU-37883, and it was mimicked by the K(ATP) activator levcromakalim. Immunoelectron microscopy showed muscarinic M₃ receptors and Kir6.1 to be enriched in caveolae. In conclusion, pharmacological K(ATP) channel inhibition antagonizes the effect of caveolae disruption on muscarinic contractility in the human detrusor, and the K(ATP) channel subunit Kir6.1 co-localizes with M₃ receptors in caveolae.
European journal of pharmacology 03/2012; 683(1-3):238-45. · 2.59 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: MicroRNAs have emerged as important regulators of smooth muscle phenotype and may play important roles in pathogenesis of various smooth muscle related disease states. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of miRNAs for urinary bladder function. We used an inducible and smooth muscle specific Dicer knockout (KO) mouse which resulted in significantly reduced levels of miRNAs, including miR-145, miR-143, miR-22, miR125b-5p and miR-27a, from detrusor preparations without mucosa. Deletion of Dicer resulted in a disturbed micturition pattern in vivo and reduced depolarization-induced pressure development in the isolated detrusor. Furthermore, electrical field stimulation revealed a decreased cholinergic but maintained purinergic component of neurogenic activation in Dicer KO bladder strips. The ultrastructure of detrusor smooth muscle cells was well maintained, and the density of nerve terminals was similar. Western blotting demonstrated reduced contents of calponin and desmin. Smooth muscle α-actin, SM22α and myocardin were unchanged. Activation of strips with exogenous agonists showed that depolarization-induced contraction was preferentially reduced; ATP- and calyculin A-induced contractions were unchanged. Quantitative real time PCR and western blotting demonstrated reduced expression of Cav1.2 (Cacna1c). It is concluded that smooth muscle miRNAs play an important role for detrusor contractility and voiding pattern of unrestrained mice. This is mediated in part via effects on expression of smooth muscle differentiation markers and L-type Ca(2+) channels in the detrusor.
PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(4):e35882. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Caveolin-1-deficiency is associated with substantial urogenital alterations. Here, a mechanical, histological and biochemical characterization of female detrusors from wild-type and caveolin-1-deficient (KO) mice was made to increase the understanding of detrusor changes caused by lack of caveolae.
Length-tension relationships were generated, and we recorded responses to electrical field stimulation, the muscarinic receptor agonist carbachol and the purinoceptor agonist ATP. Tyrosine nitration and the contents of caveolin-1, cavin-1, muscarinic M₃ receptors, phospholipase C(β1), muscle-specific kinase (MuSK) and L-type Ca(2+) channels were determined by immunoblotting. Innervation was assessed by immunohistochemistry.
Bladder to body weight ratio was not changed, nor was there any change in the optimum circumference for force development. Depolarization- and ATP-induced stress was reduced, as was carbachol-induced stress between 0.1 and 3 µM, but the supramaximal relative (% K(+)) response to carbachol was increased, as was M₃ expression. The scopolamine-sensitive component of the electrical field stimulation response was impaired, and yet bladder nerves contained little caveolin-1. The density of cholinergic nerves was unchanged, whereas CART- and CGRP-positive nerves were reduced. Immunoblotting revealed loss of MuSK.
Ablation of caveolae in the female detrusor leads to generalized impairment of contractility, ruling out prostate hypertrophy as a contributing factor. Cholinergic neuroeffector transmission is impaired without conspicuous changes in the density of cholinergic nerves or morphology of their terminals, but correlating with reduced expression of MuSK.
British Journal of Pharmacology 03/2011; 162(5):1156-70. · 5.07 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The variable regions of allergen-specific IgE, the isotype mediating allergic responses, are poorly defined to date. In this study we define the character of human antibody binding sites recognizing Phl p 2, a major allergen from timothy grass pollen. Independently raised specificities developed by phage display technology tended to have common sequence motifs (idiotypes), such as IGHV4-31 germline gene origin and heavy chain complementarity-determining region (CDR) 3 length and sequence. They also combined with highly related light chain sequences. Such heavy chain variable domain-encoding transcripts have also been found in the IgE-encoding transcriptome of yet other grass pollen allergic subjects. Altogether these data argue that a common idiotype is used to establish specific antibodies with a potential to mediate allergic responses to Phl p 2. Such a restriction may contribute to the limited molecular diversity observed in some IgE populations.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although much is known about the reactivity of polyclonal populations of antibodies targeting the wide array of allergens produced by timothy (Phleum pratense) and other grass species, little is known about the finer details at the level of individual antibody specificities.
We sought to investigate the IgE repertoire as it occurs in a patient with grass pollen allergy.
For this purpose, a human IgE library was used, constructed from peripheral blood B cells of an individual with timothy allergy. The library was screened by using phage display against a panel of 6 timothy allergens (Phl p 1, Phl p 2, Phl p 4, Phl p 5, Phl p 6, and Phl p 11).
Highly diverse antibody fragments with respect to gene usage were identified. The binders were specific for their respective target antigen, except for clones selected on Phl p 6 that also recognized Phl p 5, most likely reflecting the high sequence homology between these allergens. Interestingly, by using this approach, we were able to determine the specificity of more than 25% of all IgE-producing transcripts in this individual with allergy.
The human IgE repertoire is produced by a limited number of highly related B-cell clones and as such is restricted in its recognition of a limited number of antigens.
Human allergen-specific antibodies can, by defining the specificity of IgE responses, aid in the development of allergy vaccines or even by themselves be used in passive immunotherapy.
The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology 12/2007; 120(5):1186-92. · 9.17 Impact Factor