M Proietti

I.R.C.C.S. Istituto Auxologico Italiano, Milano, Lombardy, Italy

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Publications (7)18.06 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Obesity is associated with a number of serious diseases and with a degree of motor disability, but the extent of the risk and functional derangement within the obese population is not yet completely defined. The study aims to evaluate the combined effect of degree of adiposity, body fat distribution and age on selected cardiovascular risk factors and functional motor disability in a cohort of obese women. A multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) is employed to show the combined impact of body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and age on systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP), total and HDL cholesterol (T-CH and HDL-CH), coronary heart disease (CHD) risk, leg power output (W, assessed with a Margaria test for stair climbing) and subjective general fatigue in a cohort of 463 obese women (BMI range 30.2-66.7 kg/m2; age range 18-83 yr). High WHR and older age, but not BMI, are to a variable degree related to unfavorable values of parameters which contribute to the cardiovascular risk. WHR in the high range is associated with significantly higher values of SBP (p<0.001), CHD risk scores (p<0.001) as well as lower levels of HDL-CH (p=0.01), while older age is significantly associated with higher SBP (p<0.001), T-CH (p<0.001) and CHD risk scores (p<0.001). A significant interaction between age and WHR was detected in the effect on DBP (p=0.01), the negative role of high WHR values being apparent in older women (age > or = 51 yr) but not in younger ones (age < 51 yr). Although not significantly related to CHD risk scores, BMI interacted significantly with WHR in determining high risk score values (p=0.01), the negative effect of a high WHR being apparent in women with a high degree of obesity (BMI > or = 40 kg/m2) but not in those with a low one (BMI < 40 kg/m2). In contrast, WHR did not significantly affect W, which appeared to be mainly dependent on age (p<0.001) and BMI (p<0.001), when considered in terms of unit body mass (BM). Subjective global fatigue, however, was unaffected by any of the factors considered. In the present cohort of obese women, older age and excessive abdominal fat distribution (as assessed by WHR) appear to be significant factors in relation to increased cardiovascular disease risk, irrespective of BMI, while older age and higher levels of overall adiposity are associated with functional motor derangement irrespective of body fat distribution. This suggests that obesity increases metabolic risk and induces motor dysfunction by means of different biological mechanisms and with a different impact within the obese female population.
    Journal of endocrinological investigation 11/2006; 29(10):905-12. · 1.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In order to evaluate the difference in the energy cost of submaximal cycling between normal weight (NW) and obese (OB) females, nine OB (age 23.2 years+/-1.6 SE, BMI 40.4+/-1.2 kg/m2) and nine NW (age 25.6 years+/-1.8, BMI 21.7+/-0.6 kg/m2) healthy young women were studied during a graded bicycle ergometer test at 40, 60, 80, 100 and 120 W. At rest and at all workloads, oxygen uptake VO2 was higher in OB than in NW women (Student's t test, P<0.05-0.01), as well as respiratory quotient during all exercise levels (P<0.05-0.01), while similar values of heart rate, pulmonary ventilation and breathing efficiency were found between the two groups. Maximal VO2 and anaerobic threshold were higher in OB women, and they also explained the higher oxygen pulse observed during submaximal exercise, but no difference was found when the values were adjusted for fat-free mass. While net mechanical efficiency (ME) was significantly lower in OB (ANOVA, P<0.05), delta ME was similar in both groups, indicating no substantial derangement of muscle intrinsic efficiency in obesity, but suggesting that the increased mass of body segments involved in cycling movements may be chiefly responsible for the higher energy cost of this type of exercise. Comparison of the actual VO2 presently measured with that predicted by available cycle ergometry equations at the different workloads indicated inaccuracy of various degrees ranging from 8.4 to -31.9%. It is concluded that the lower mechanical efficiency displayed by obese women in cycling has to be taken into account when prescribing exercise through methods predicting the metabolic load.
    Arbeitsphysiologie 05/2006; 97(1):16-25. · 2.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To characterise the specific GH responses to repeated bouts of standardised aerobic exercise in amateur competitive cyclists, 6 volunteers (mean age +/- SE: 28.7 +/- 2.3 yr, range: 18-35 yr) performed two consecutive 30-min cycling sessions at 80% of individual maximal oxygen uptake on three occasions with different time interval between bouts: 2 h (EXP A), 4 h (EXP B) and 6 h (EXP C). Serum GH concentration was determined in blood samples collected at 15-min intervals during exercise and following 1 h of recovery. In EXP A and EXP B, peak GH concentration in response to the second bout was significantly lower (p < 0.01) than that of the first bout, but in EXP C no difference was detected between bouts. Similarly, the average integrated GH concentration (AUC), determined during the exercise period and in the following 1 h of recovery in the course of the second bout, was significantly lower than that observed during the first bout only in EXP A (p < 0.05) and EXP B (p < 0.01) and not in EXP C, so that the second bout AUC of EXP C was significantly higher than that of EXP A (p < 0.01) and EXP B (p < 0.01). It was concluded that GH responses to subsequent bouts of aerobic exercise are dependent on the time interval between the exercise sessions.
    Journal of endocrinological investigation 06/2005; 28(5):RC11-4. · 1.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The purposes of this study were to compare postural stability between obese and lean subjects and to investigate the effect of a 3-week body weight reduction (BWR) program entailing specific balance training on postural stability of extremely obese patients. Time of balance maintenance and mean error on the medial-lateral direction at the trunk and lower limb level were assessed during a single limb stance on a movable platform in 19 non-obese and in 20 extremely obese individuals (age range: 20-40 yr). Time of balance maintenance was shorter (obese: 21.1+/-7.7 vs lean: 27.3+/-3.1 sec) and medial-lateral sway of the trunk was larger in obese (5.4+/-3.2 degrees) than in lean (3.2+/-1.1 degrees) subjects (p<0.05). Two subgroups of obese subjects were also tested after a BWR program (energy-restricted diet, moderate physical exercise, nutritional education and psychological counselling) combined with or without 6 sessions of specific balance training on a movable platform. BWR plus specific balance training enhanced time of balance maintenance (pre: 23.8+/-7.2 vs post: 30.0+/-0.0 sec) and reduced the trunk sway (5.2+/-2.8 degrees vs 2.6+/-0.9 degrees ) more than BWR alone (p<0.05). The present findings indicate that extremely obese individuals have inadequate postural stability (compared to their lean counterparts) that could however be improved by few sessions of specific balance training incorporated into a multidisciplinary BWR program. It was concluded that balance improvement is an important goal of rehabilitation, that would probably reduce the propensity of overweight individuals to fall while performing everyday activities.
    Journal of endocrinological investigation 03/2005; 28(1):2-7. · 1.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate whether stair climbing performance and body composition are similarly affected by a body mass reduction (BMR) program in obese individuals of different gender, age and body mass index (BMI) level. Longitudinal, clinical intervention study entailing energy-restricted diet (5023-7535 kJ/day), nutritional education, psychological counselling and moderate physical activity (indoor cycling, outdoor walking, gymnastics routines, five sessions/week) during a 3-week period. A total of 466 male and 807 female subjects categorized as a function of gender, age (< vs >/=50 y) and BMI (< vs >/=40 kg/m(2)). Body mass, stair climbing time and power before and after the BMR program. Fat-free mass and fat mass were also evaluated by bioimpedance analysis, in a representative subgroup of 160 patients, to evaluate the relation between fat-free mass and power output. Body mass, fat-free mass and fat mass significantly decreased following the BMR program (P<0.001), with male subjects reducing body mass and fat-free mass more than and fat mass less than the female subjects. Stair climbing time decreased (P<0.001) and therefore anaerobic power significantly increased 9.7% after the treatment. The greatest improvement in stair climbing performance was observed in obese women aged >/=50 y. Significant inverse correlations were found between initial power or fat-free mass level and respective percent increases (R=-0.35/-0.37, P<0.001) and between BMR-induced percent changes in body mass and power (R=-0.13, P<0.001). Subjects with the lowest baseline level in stair climbing performance (and probably with the lowest amount of fat-free mass), that is, obese women aged more than 50 y, obtained the largest enhancement after the 3-week BMR program, likely improving overall functional capacities and resulting in greater independence during daily-living activities in such a population.
    International Journal of Obesity 09/2004; 28(9):1097-104. · 5.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To depict the general trends of muscle anaerobic performance in obese subjects within a wide range of age and body weight. Cross-sectional study for the measurement of lower limb maximal anaerobic power output with a modification of the Margaria stair climbing test in a large population of obese subjects of both genders within a wide span of age (18-80 y) and body mass index (BMI, 30-68 kg m(-2)). Furthermore, body composition was also determined by bioimpedance analysis in a representative subgroup, in order to evaluate the relationships between fat-free mass (FFM) and power output. A total of 1298 obese subjects (486 males, 812 females) from an Italian population seeking medical support for body weight reduction. Within this sample, a consistent subgroup of 193 subjects (59 males, 134 females) was also selected for accessory study of body composition. In general, male subjects developed significantly higher lower limb power output (W) than female subjects (P<0.001-0.01), both in absolute terms and per unit body mass. In both genders, W was influenced negatively by age (P<0.001) and positively by BMI (P<0.001). While the effect of age was similar in both genders, BMI had a different positive effect in male and in female subjects, being more definite in male subjects. In the subgroup, FFM was found to depend both on age and BMI, in a fashion comparable with that displayed by W. The gender-related differences in W disappeared when expressed per unit FFM and a significant linear correlation was found between FFM and W, both in male and female subjects (R2=0.32-0.51, P<0.001). The lower limb maximal power output is significantly higher in obese male subjects than in female subjects, being negatively influenced by age but positively related to BMI. Female subjects appear to be at a greater disadvantage for effect of obesity, the major motor limitations being suffered by older women with higher BMI. These gender differences in age- and BMI-dependent W changes seem to be related to changes in FFM in the subgroup in whom body composition was studied.
    International Journal of Obesity 02/2004; 28(1):91-8. · 5.22 Impact Factor
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