[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ciliary beat frequency (CBF) was measured by video-optical microscopy in rat tracheal and distal airway ciliary cells using a slice preparation. In tracheal ciliary cells (tracheal slice), ATP or 2-methylthio ATP (MeSATP) increased CBF, which was inhibited by suramin (100 microm, an inhibitor of purinergic receptor). Ionomycin (5 microm) or thapsigargin (2 microm) increased CBF similarly. Ca2+-free solution or addition of Ni2+ (1 mm) decreased CBF gradually by approximately 25% and subsequent stimulation with ATP (10 microm) increased CBF transiently. The purinergic agonist experiments demonstrated that ATP increases CBF in tracheal ciliary cells via both P2X and P2Y receptors. ATP increased the intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) in tracheal ciliary cells. However, in distal airway ciliary cells (lung slice), ATP did not increase CBF and [Ca2+]i, although a Ca2+-free solution decreased CBF, and ionomycin (5 microm) or thapsigargin (2 microm) increased it. Moreover, acetylcholine (100 microm) did not increase CBF in distal airway ciliary cells, although it increased CBF in tracheal ciliary cells. Terbutaline (10 microm), a selective beta2-adrenergic agonist, increased CBF in both tracheal and distal airway ciliary cells. These observations suggest that the Ca2+-mobilization mechanisms via purinergic or muscarinic receptors of the distal airway ciliary cell may be different from those of the tracheal ciliary cell. In conclusion, the CBF increase is differently regulated in the tracheal and distal airway epithelia of the rat.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The ciliary beat frequency (CBF) of rat tracheal ciliary cells in a slice preparation was measured using video-enhanced contrast (VEC) microscopy. Acetylcholine (ACh) increased CBF mediated via intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) in a dose-dependent manner. An adequate hypo-osmotic stress (-40 mosM) potentiated ACh-stimulated CBF increase in tracheal ciliary cells and shifted the ACh dose-response curve to the left (lower concentration side). This potentiation was independent of hypo-osmotic stresses applied ranging from -20 mosM to -90 mosM. A hypo-osmotic stress induces ATP release in many cell types. The present study demonstrated that suramin (an inhibitor of purinergic receptors) and apyrase (an ATPase/ADPase) eliminate the hypo-osmotic potentiation of ACh-stimulated CBF increase and that ATP increased [Ca2+]i and CBF, as well as potentiating ACh-stimulated rises in [Ca2+]i and CBF increase. Moreover, the apical surface of tracheal ciliary cells were stained immunopositive for the P2X4 purinergic receptor. A hypo-osmotic stress (-40 mosM) transiently increased [Ca2+]i and potentiated the ACh-stimulated [Ca2+]i increase. The hypo-osmotic potentiation of ACh-stimulated CBF increase was not detected under Ca2+-free conditions. These observations suggest that a hypo-osmotic stress stimulates ATP release from the trachea. The released ATP may induce further increases in [Ca2+]i and CBF in ACh-stimulated tracheal ciliary cells, which may be mediated by purinergic receptors, such as P2X4.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 28-year-old man arrived at our hospital complaining of severe dyspnea. Bronchoscopic findings demonstrated that a tumor was located approximately 4 cm distant from the vocal cord, occupying most of the tracheal lumen. To urgently relieve the dyspnea, some parts of the tumor were cauterized with the neodymium:yttrium-aluminum garnet laser. Histopathologic examination of the cauterized specimen revealed malignant hemangiopericytoma. During the operation, the tumor was resected en bloc with a tracheal segment containing four tracheal cartilages. The patient's postoperative course was uneventful with no evidence of recurrence 1 year after the operation.
The Annals of Thoracic Surgery 10/2003; 76(3):944-6. · 3.45 Impact Factor