[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: T-2 toxin is the most toxic trichothecene and both humans and animals suffer from several pathological conditions after consumption of foodstuffs contaminated with trichothecenes. We investigated the molecular mechanism of T-2 toxin induced cytotoxicity and cell death in HeLa cells. T-2 toxin at LC50 of 10 ng/ml caused time dependent increase in cytotoxicity as assessed by dye uptake, lactatedehydrogenase leakage and MTT assay. The toxin caused generation of reactive oxygen species as early as 30 min followed by significant depletion of glutathione levels and increased lipid peroxidation. The results indicate oxidative stress as underlying mechanism of cytotoxicity. Single stranded DNA damage after T-2 treatment was observed as early as 2 and 4h by DNA diffusion assay. The cells exhibited apoptotic morphology like condensed chromatin and nuclear fragmentation after 4h of treatment. Downstream of T-2 induced oxidative stress and DNA damage a time dependent increase in expression level of p53 protein was observed. The increase in Bax/Bcl2 ratio indicated shift in response, in favour of apoptotic process in T-2 toxin treated cells. Western blot analysis showed increase in levels of mitochondrial apoptogenic factors Bax, Bcl-2, cytochrome-c followed by activation of caspases-9, -3 and -7 leading to DNA fragmentation and apoptosis. In addition to caspase-dependent pathway, our results showed involvement of caspase-independent AIF pathway in T-2 induced apoptosis. Broad spectrum caspase inhibitor z-VAD-fmk could partially protect the cells from DNA damage but could not inhibit AIF induced oligonucleosomal DNA fragmentation beyond 4 h. Results of the study clearly show that oxidative stress is the underlying mechanism by which T-2 toxin causes DNA damage and apoptosis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: T-2 toxin is one of the most potent trichothecenes, and on exposure causes severe human and animal diseases. We investigated the dose- and time-dependent effect of T-2 toxin on certain biochemical variables, oxidative damage in terms of antioxidant enzyme activity, and gene expression profile in mice. Mice treated intraperitoneally with either 1 LD50 or 2 LD50 dose (5.61 and 11.22 mg/kg body weight, respectively) of T-2 toxin showed significant alterations in hepatic alanine amino transferase, aspartate amino transferase, and lactate dehydrogenase. Significant changes in hepatic lipid peroxidation, depletion of glutathione (GSH), and expression of heat shock protein-70 indicated oxidative damage. We also evaluated the activity of antioxidant enzymes and compared the gene expression profile by quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Except for glutathione reductase (GR), there was a significant increase in activity of glutathione-S-transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase at 1 LD50 dose. At 2 LD50 dose, SOD showed decrease in activity, whereas GST, GPx, and catalase showed significant increase. In contrast, gene expression profile showed downregulation in GR, GPx, GST, and catalase at 1 LD50 dose. At 2 LD50 dose except GSH synthetase, all other genes were downregulated. The results clearly show oxidative stress as one of the mechanisms of T-2 toxin-mediated toxicity.
Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology 05/2009; 23(3):212-21. DOI:10.1002/jbt.20282 · 1.93 Impact Factor