[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aims/Introduction: Activation of the renin‐angiotensin system (RAS) in the kidney plays an important role in renal function. The aim of this study was to investigate whether plasma and urinary angiotensinogen levels were associated with renal and cardiovascular prognosis in type 2 diabetic patients.
Materials and Methods: We measured plasma and urinary angiotensinogen levels in the observational follow‐up cohort of 234 Japanese type 2 diabetic patients (144 with normoalbuminuria, 90 with albuminuria) enrolled between 1998 and 1999 and followed them up until the end of 2008. The associations of these markers with the annual decline in the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and incidence of renal and cardiovascular composite endpoints (chronic hemodialysis, myocardial infarction, angina pectoris, stroke and cerebral hemorrhage) were evaluated.
Results: At baseline, urinary angiotensinogen levels correlated with urinary albumin‐creatinine ratio, urinary β2‐microglobulin and inversely with eGFR. In contrast, plasma angiotensinogen levels correlated neither with these renal factors nor with urinary angiotensinogen levels. In the follow‐up study (median duration: 9 years), urinary angiotensinogen, but not plasma angiotensinogen, correlated inversely with the annual change in eGFR (r = −0.51, P < 0.001). When patients were divided into four subgroups according to albuminuria and urinary angiotensinogen levels, patients with albuminuria and high urinary angiotensinogen levels showed a progressive decline of eGFR and a higher incidence of renal and cardiovascular composite endpoints.
Conclusions: These results suggest that the higher level of urinary angiotensinogen in type 2 diabetic patients with albuminuria is a high risk factor for worsening renal and cardiovascular complications. (J Diabetes Invest, doi: 10.1111/j.2040‐1124.2011.00172.x, 2011)
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Shiga Microalbuminuria Reduction Trial (SMART) showed the advantage of ARB over CCB beyond the blood pressure (BP)-lowering effect in reducing microalbuminuria. To further assess the impact of BP control or renin-angiotensin system inhibition on microalbuminuria, the SMART patients were re-analyzed. Hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes and microalbuminuria were randomly assigned to valsartan or amlodipine treatment groups for 24 weeks. Target blood pressure was set at <130/80 mmHg. Changes in the urinary albumin creatinine ratio (ACR) from baseline were assessed in the valsartan monotherapy (VM) group (n=33), the amlodipine monotherapy (AM) group (n=36), the concomitant valsartan and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor group (VA) (n=33), and the concomitant amlodipine and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (AA) group (n=38). At the end of the study, mean BP was not different among the four treatment groups. The changes in ACR from baseline to the end of the treatment period in VM, AM, VA, and AA were -36%, +30%, -26%, and +8%, respectively. The dissociation between the anti-albuminuric and antihypertensive effects of valsartan or amlodipine was observed in the respective monotherapy groups. In the AA group, however, a significant positive relationship was found between the changes in ACR and those in systolic BP. In conclusion, RAS inhibitors may be necessary in order for calcium channel blockers to have an effect on microalbuminuria. Therefore, RAS inhibitors are first-line drugs for hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes and microalbuminuria.
Hypertension Research 07/2008; 31(6):1171-6. DOI:10.1291/hypres.31.1171 · 2.66 Impact Factor