[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is associated with skeletal muscle insulin resistance (IR), which has been linked to decreased mitochondrial function. We measured mitochondrial respiration in lean and obese women with and without PCOS using high-resolution respirometry.
Hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps (40 mU/min per m(2)) and muscle biopsies were performed on 23 women with PCOS (nine lean (body mass index (BMI) <25 kg/m(2)) and 14 obese (BMI >25 kg/m(2))) and 17 age- and weight-matched controls (six lean and 11 obese). Western blotting and high-resolution respirometry was used to determine mitochondrial function.
Insulin sensitivity decreased with PCOS and increasing body weight. Mitochondrial respiration with substrates for complex I and complex I+II were similar in all groups, and PCOS was not associated with a decrease in mitochondrial content as measured by mitochondrial DNA/genomic DNA. We found no correlation between mitochondrial function and indices of insulin sensitivity.
In contrast to previous reports, we found no evidence that skeletal muscle mitochondrial respiration is reduced in skeletal muscle of women with PCOS compared with control subjects. Furthermore, mitochondrial content did not differ between our control and PCOS groups. These results question the causal relationship between reduced mitochondrial function and skeletal muscle IR in PCOS.
European Journal of Endocrinology 07/2011; 165(4):631-7. · 3.14 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Twenty one healthy untrained male subjects were randomized to follow a high-fat diet (HFD; 55-60E% fat, 25-30E% carbohydrate, and 15E% protein) or a normal diet (ND; 25-35E% fat, 55-60E% carbohydrate, and 10-15E% protein) for 2(1/2) wk. Diets were isocaloric and tailored individually to match energy expenditure. At 2(1/2) wk of diet, one 60-min bout of bicycle exercise (70% of maximal oxygen uptake) was performed. Muscle biopsies were obtained before and after the diet, immediately after exercise, and after 3-h recovery. Insulin sensitivity (hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp) and intramyocellular triacylglycerol content did not change with the intervention in either group. Indexes of mitochondrial density were similar across the groups and intervention. Mitochondrial respiratory rates, measured in permeabilized muscle fibers, showed a 31 ± 11 and 26 ± 9% exercise-induced increase (P < 0.05) in state 3 (glycolytic substrates) and uncoupled respiration, respectively. However, in HFD this increase was abolished. At recovery, no change from resting respiration was seen in either group. With a lipid substrate (octanoyl-carnitine with or without ADP), similar exercise-induced increases (31-62%) were seen in HFD and ND, but only in HFD was an elevated (P < 0.05) respiratory rate seen at recovery. With HFD complex I and IV protein expression decreased (P < 0.05 and P = 0.06, respectively). A fat-rich diet induces marked changes in the mitochondrial electron transport system protein content and in exercise-induced mitochondrial substrate oxidation rates, with the effects being present hours after the exercise. The effect of HFD is present even without effects on insulin sensitivity and intramyocellular lipid accumulation. An isocaloric high-fat diet does not cause insulin resistance.
Journal of Applied Physiology 03/2011; 110(6):1607-14. · 3.48 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Reduced oxidative capacity of skeletal muscle has been proposed to lead to accumulation of intramyocellular triglyceride (IMTG) and insulin resistance. We have measured mitochondrial respiration before and after a 10% low-calorie-induced weight loss in young obese women to examine the relationship between mitochondrial function, IMTG, and insulin resistance. Nine obese women (age, 32.3 years [SD, 3.0]; body mass index, 33.4 kg/m(2) [SD, 2.6]) completed a 53-day (SE, 3.8) very low calorie diet (VLCD) of 500 to 600 kcal/d without altering physical activity. The target of the intervention was a 10% weight loss; and measurements of mitochondrial respiration, IMTG, respiratory exchange ratio, citrate synthase activity, mitochondrial DNA copy number, plasma insulin, 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test, and free fatty acids were performed before and after weight loss. Mitochondrial respiration was measured in permeabilized muscle fibers using high-resolution respirometry. Average weight loss was 11.5% (P < .05), but the levels of IMTG remained unchanged. Fasting plasma glucose, plasma insulin homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, and insulin sensitivity index (composite) obtained during 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test improved significantly. Mitochondrial respiration per milligram tissue decreased by approximately 25% (P < .05), but citrate synthase activity and mitochondrial DNA copy number remained unchanged. Respiratory exchange ratio decreased from 0.87 (SE, 0.01) to 0.79 (SE, 0.02) (P < .05) as a sign of increased whole-body fat oxidation. Markers of insulin sensitivity improved after the very low calorie diet; but mitochondrial function decreased, and IMTG remained unchanged. Our results do not support a direct relationship between mitochondrial function and insulin resistance in young obese women and do not support a direct relationship between IMTG and insulin sensitivity in young obese women during weight loss.
Metabolism: clinical and experimental 06/2009; 58(8):1145-52. · 2.59 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In skeletal muscle, ceramides may be involved in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance through an attenuation of insulin signalling. This study investigated total skeletal muscle ceramide fatty acid content in participants exhibiting a wide range of insulin sensitivities.
The middle-aged male participants (n=33) were matched for lean body mass and divided into four groups: type 2 diabetes (T2D, n=8), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT, n=9), healthy controls (CON, n=8) and endurance-trained (TR, n=8). A two step (28 and 80 mU m(-2) min(-1)) sequential euglycaemic-hyperinsulinaemic clamp was performed for 120 and 90 min for step 1 and step 2, respectively. Muscle biopsies were obtained from vastus lateralis at baseline, and after steps 1 and 2.
Glucose infusion rates increased in response to insulin infusion, and significant differences were present between groups (T2D<IGT<CON<TR). At baseline, muscle ceramide content was 108+/-7, 95+/-6, 126+/-12 and 156+/-25 nmol total ceramide fatty acids/g wet weight of tissue in the T2D, IGT, CON and TR groups, respectively, and muscle ceramide content was higher (p<0.01) in the TR than the IGT group. Muscle ceramide content was not influenced by insulin infusion. Interestingly, a positive correlation (r=0.42, p<0.05) was present between muscle ceramide content at baseline and insulin sensitivity.
Total muscle ceramide content was similar between individuals showing marked differences in insulin sensitivity, and therefore does not seem to be a major factor in muscle insulin resistance. Furthermore, aerobic capacity does not appear to influence muscle ceramide content.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: According to the free radical theory of aging, reactive oxygen species (ROS) act as a driving force of the aging process, and it is generally believed that mitochondrial dysfunction is a major source of increased oxidative stress in tissues with high content of mitochondria, such as muscle or brain. However, recent experiments in mouse models of premature aging have questioned the role of mitochondrial ROS production in premature aging. To address the role of mitochondrial impairment and ROS production for aging in human muscles, we have analyzed mitochondrial properties in muscle fibres isolated from the vastus lateralis of young and elderly donors. Mitochondrial respiratory functions were addressed by high-resolution respirometry, and ROS production was analyzed by in situ staining with the redox-sensitive dye dihydroethidium. We found that aged human skeletal muscles contain fully functional mitochondria and that the level of ROS production is higher in young compared to aged muscle. Accordingly, we could not find any increase in oxidative modification of proteins in muscle from elderly donors. However, the accumulation of lipofuscin was identified as a robust marker of human muscle aging. The data support a model, where ROS-induced molecular damage is continuously removed, preventing the accumulation of dysfunctional mitochondria despite ongoing ROS production.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes are associated with mitochondrial dysfunction. The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that oxidative phosphorylation and electron transport capacity are diminished in the skeletal muscle of type 2 diabetic subjects, as a result of a reduction in the mitochondrial content.
The O(2) flux capacity of permeabilised muscle fibres from biopsies of the quadriceps in healthy subjects (n = 8; age 58 +/- 2 years [mean+/-SEM]; BMI 28 +/- 1 kg/m(2); fasting plasma glucose 5.4 +/- 0.2 mmol/l) and patients with type 2 diabetes (n = 11; age 62 +/- 2 years; BMI 32 +/- 2 kg/m(2); fasting plasma glucose 9.0 +/- 0.8 mmol/l) was measured by high-resolution respirometry.
O(2) flux expressed per mg of muscle (fresh weight) during ADP-stimulated state 3 respiration was lower (p < 0.05) in patients with type 2 diabetes in the presence of complex I substrate (glutamate) (31 +/- 2 vs 43 +/- 3 pmol O(2) s(-1) mg(-1)) and in response to glutamate + succinate (parallel electron input from complexes I and II) (63 +/- 3 vs 85 +/- 6 pmol s(-1) mg(-1)). Further increases in O(2) flux capacity were observed in response to uncoupling by FCCP, but were again lower (p < 0.05) in type 2 diabetic patients than in healthy control subjects (86 +/- 4 vs 109 +/- 8 pmol s(-1) mg(-1)). However, when O(2) flux was normalised for mitochondrial DNA content or citrate synthase activity, there were no differences in oxidative phosphorylation or electron transport capacity between patients with type 2 diabetes and healthy control subjects.
Mitochondrial function is normal in type 2 diabetes. Blunting of coupled and uncoupled respiration in type 2 diabetic patients can be attributed to lower mitochondrial content.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Exercise superimposed on insulin stimulation is shown to increase muscle glucose metabolism and these two stimuli have synergistic effects. The objective of this study was to investigate glucose infusion rates (GIR) in groups with a wide variation in terms of insulin sensitivity during insulin stimulation alone and with superimposed exercise. Patients with type 2 diabetes, subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), healthy controls, and endurance-trained subjects were studied. The groups were matched for age and lean body mass (LBM), and differed in peak oxygen uptake (VO2 peak), body fat percentage, body mass index (BMI), fasting plasma glucose concentration, and oral glucose-tolerance test (OGTT). Each subject underwent a two-step sequential hyperinsulinemic, euglycemic clamp. During the last 30 min of the 2nd clamp step, subjects exercised on a bicycle at 43% +/- 2% of VO2 peak. In agreement with the OGTT data, the presence of different GIR during insulin stimulation alone demonstrated varying levels of insulin sensitivity between groups. However, the impairment of GIR in IGT observed during insulin stimulation alone was abolished compared to controls when exercise was superimposed on insulin stimulation. Humans with IGT are resistant to insulin-stimulated but not to exercise-induced glucose uptake.