ABSTRACT: Therapeutic radiation and subsequent detection of tumor cell death has been performed mainly in vitro systems, making it difficult to accurately characterize the mechanisms of tumor cell death after radiosurgery. To better characterize what occurs to glioma cells after radiation therapy, we developed a rat model using the 9L gliosarcoma cell line implanted reproducibly to the caudate nucleus in rats. After 1 Gy radiation, 9L tumors in vivo induced mainly necrosis (determined by trypan blue exclusion) of 10 - 74 % at 6 - 72 hours post-radiation. This is in contrast to a previous in vitro study which demonstrated that 18 Gy of radiation induces considerably less cell death as determined by trypan blue exclusion (approximately 20 - 25 % at 6 - 72 hours post-radiation). However, significant amounts of apoptosis were detected as early as 6 hours after radiation. Apoptosis determination was by annexin V (marker of early apoptosis) and propidium iodide (marker of membrane stability) staining followed by flow cytometry detection. When caspase 3 and caspase 8 enzymatic activities (mediators of apoptosis) were measured from freshly explanted tumor cells, peak activity was found 6 hours after 1 Gy radiation (p < 0.01). Taken together, these data indicate the presence of apoptosis early after radiation therapy (1 Gy) which progressed to necrosis in a unique in vivo model of gliosarcoma that may prove useful in determining new therapeutic approaches to radiation therapy and tumor cell biology.
min - Minimally Invasive Neurosurgery 07/2005; 48(3):142-8. · 0.70 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Elevated macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) has been implicated as a causal mechanism in a number of disease conditions including cardiovascular disease (CVD), diabetes, and cancer. Excess body fat is associated with an increased risk of numerous health conditions including CVD, diabetes, and cancer. To our knowledge, the association between MIF and obesity status and the effect of weight loss on serum MIF concentrations have not been reported. In this study, we examined the effects of participation in a behavior-based weight loss program on MIF concentrations in obese individuals.
Study participants were 71 men and women enrolled in The Cooper Institute Weight Management Program. Participants were predominantly female (68%, n=48), middle-aged (46.5+/-9.8 y), and severely obese (BMI=43.0+/-8.6).
Plasma MIF concentrations and other standard risk factors were measured before and after participation in a diet and physical activity based weight management program.
The mean follow-up was 8.5+/-3.0 months with an average weight loss of 14.4 kg (P<0.001). The majority of clinical risk factors significantly improved at follow-up. Median levels of plasma MIF concentration were significantly lower at follow-up (median [IQR]; 5.1[3.6-10.3]) compared to baseline (8.4 [4.3-48.8]; P=0.0005). The percentage of participants with plasma MIF concentration > or =19.5 mg/nl (highest tertile at baseline) decreased from 33.8 to 5.6% (P<0.001). Further, elevated baseline plasma MIF concentration was associated with markers of beta-cell dysfunction and reductions in MIF were associated with improvements in beta-cell function.
Circulating MIF concentrations are elevated in obese but otherwise healthy individuals; however, this elevation in MIF is not uniform across individuals. In obese individuals with elevated circulating MIF concentrations, participation in physical activity and a dietary-focused weight management program resulted in substantial reduction in MIF.
International Journal of Obesity 06/2005; 29(6):675-81. · 4.69 Impact Factor
Journal of Biological Chemistry 01/1974; 248(24):8402-7. · 4.77 Impact Factor