Myrto Petreas

United States Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, Ohio, United States

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Publications (73)257.35 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of the study is to define AroER tri-screen's utility for identifying endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) that target aromatase and/or estrogen receptor (ER), and to measure the total estrogenic activity in biological specimens. ER-positive, aromatase-expressing MCF-7 breast cancer cells were stably transfected with an estrogen responsive element (ERE)-driven luciferase reporter plasmid to yield a new high-throughput screening platform-the AroER tri-screen. AroER tri-screen was capable of identifying estrogen precursors, such as cortodoxone, which function as estrogens through a two-step conversion process in aromatase-expressing tissue. Furthermore, the system proved useful for assessing EDC activity in biologically relevant samples. Estimating these activities is critical because natural estrogens and estrogenic EDCs are important factors in ER-positive breast cancer risk. As our research demonstrates, incorporating functionally active aromatase into the AroER tri-screen produces a powerful and unique tool to (1) identify new EDCs targeting aromatase and/or ER; (2) discover novel EDCs activated by aromatase; and (3) estimate overall estrogenic activities in biological samples as a potential intermediate risk factor for breast cancer.
    Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 05/2015; 151(2). DOI:10.1007/s10549-015-3398-z · 4.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Firefighters are exposed to chemicals during fire events and may also experience chemical exposure in their fire stations. Dust samples from used vacuum cleaner bags were collected from 20 fire stations in California and analyzed for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Median dust concentrations were higher for PBDEs (e.g., 47,000 ng/g for BDE-209) than for PAHs (e.g., 220 ng/g for benzo[a]pyrene) or PCBs (e.g., 9.3 ng/g for PCB-180). BDE-209 concentrations in dust from California fire stations were among the highest of any previously documented homes or occupational settings in the world. We examined factors such as the frequency of emergency responses, the number of fire vehicles on site, and building age, but we could not account for the high levels of BDE-209 observed in fire station dust. Based on the findings of our pilot study, we hypothesize that possible sources of BDE-209 in fire stations include contaminated ash tracked back from fire events via boots, clothing, and other equipment as well as specialized equipment treated with BDE-209, including turnout gear and fire vehicles. We suggest possible follow-up studies to confirm these hypotheses.
    Environmental Science & Technology 03/2015; 49(8). DOI:10.1021/es505463g · 5.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Concern about persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in Californians prompted the state's biomonitoring program to conduct a study in firefighters, who are occupationally exposed to high levels of POPs. In this paper we present serum concentrations of several classes of POPs (polybrominated diphenyl ethers [PBDEs], polychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs], and organochlorine pesticides [OCPs]) in 101 Southern California firefighters. Despite recently reported declining trends of PBDEs in Californians, high levels were measured in firefighters' serum (Σ5PBDEs: median = 59.1 ng/g lipid, range = 18.8-714 ng/g lipid) in comparison to other populations in California during the same period. In addition, nearly one-third of subjects had particularly high serum levels of decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209), consistent with other recent results in firefighters; this pattern may be a marker of recent firefighting activity. In contrast, serum levels of PCBs and OCPs measured in firefighters' sera were not elevated compared to US levels. Multivariable analysis indicated that lower levels of serum PBDEs were associated with turnout gear cleaning and storage practices after fires. Our study supports the hypothesis that firefighting activities are likely to increase exposure to PBDEs and that good housekeeping and personal hygiene practices may reduce exposure to these compounds.
    Environmental Science and Technology 02/2015; DOI:10.1021/es5055918 · 5.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Blood from 48 California mothers (2006–2007) analyzed for POPs.•Serum-PCBs were positively associated with fish consumption.•Serum-PBDEs were positively associated with dust-PBDEs.•Effects of age, ethnicity, income, birthplace, BMI, and lactation differed by POP.
    Environmental Research 01/2015; 136. DOI:10.1016/j.envres.2014.10.009 · 3.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Eleven novel brominated flame retardants (NBFRs) were analyzed in dust samples from California homes as a part of the Northern California Childhood Leukemia Study (NCCLS) and from the living quarters of California fire stations as a part of the Firefighter Occupational Exposure (FOX) study using high resolution gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The eleven NBFRs were α- and β-1,2-dibromo-4-(1,2-dibromoethyl)cyclohexane (α- and β-DBE-DBCH), 2-bromoallyl 2,3,6-tribromophenylether (BATE), pentabromotoluene (PBT), pentabromoethylbenzene (PBEB), 2,3-dibromopropyl 2,4,6-tribromophenyl ether (TBP-DBPE), hexabromobenzene (HBB), 2-ethylhexyl-2,3,4,5-tetrabromobenzoate (EH-TBB), 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy) ethane (BTBPE), bis(2-ethylhexyl) tetrabromophthalate (BEH-TEBP), and decabromodiphenylethane (DBDPE). Six of the seven NBFRs that are produced in relatively small quantities (i.e., α-, β-DBE-DBCH, BATE, PBEB, PBT, TBP-DBPE) were measured close to or below the limit of quantitation (0.64ng/g) in both the NCCLS and FOX samples, and the seventh, HBB, was measured at median concentrations of 1.85ng/g and 9.40ng/g in the NCCLS and FOX samples, respectively. The remaining four NBFRs, EH-TBB, BEH-TEBP, BTBPE, and DBDPE, are produced in higher quantities, and were detected at median concentrations of 337ng/g, 186ng/g, 22.3ng/g, and 82.8ng/g, respectively in the NCCLS samples, and at median concentrations of 2687ng/g, 2076ng/g, 28.4ng/g, and 161ng/g, respectively, in the FOX samples. Concentrations of NBFRs in the NCCLS and FOX dust samples were several times lower than concentrations of PBDEs previously measured in the same samples. Concentrations of NBFRs in the NCCLS and FOX dust samples were generally comparable to concentrations of NBFRs in other studies of house dust from the US and Canada.
    Environmental Research 09/2014; 135C:9-14. DOI:10.1016/j.envres.2014.08.022 · 3.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (OH-PBDEs) are formed from the oxidative metabolism of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in humans, rats and mice, but their quantitation in human blood and other matrices with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometric techniques has been a challenge. In this study, a novel analytical method was developed and validated using only 250μL of human serum for the quantitation of twelve OH-PBDEs, fully chromatographically separated in a 15min analytical run. This method includes two novel approaches: an enzymatic hydrolysis procedure and a chromatographic separation using a mixed mode chromatography column. The enzymatic hydrolysis (EH) was found critical for 4'-OH-BDE17, which was not detectable without it. For the sample clean up, a solid phase extraction protocol was developed and validated for the extraction of the 12 congeners from human serum. In addition, for the first time baseline resolution of two components was achieved that correspond to a single peak previously identified as 6'-OH-BDE99. The method was validated for linearity, accuracy, precision, matrix effects, limit of quantification, limit of detection, sample stability and overall efficiency. Recoveries (absolute and relative) ranged from 66 to 130% with relative standard deviations <21% for all analytes. Limit of detection and quantitation ranged from 4 to 90pgmL(-1) and 6-120pgmL(-1), respectively, with no carry over effects. This method was applied in ten commercially available human serum samples from the general US population. The mean values of the congeners detected in all samples are 4'-OH-BDE17 (34.2pgmL(-1)), 4-OH-BDE42 (33.9pgmL(-1)), 5-OH-BDE47 (17.5pgmL(-1)) and 4'-OH-BDE49 (12.4pgmL(-1)).
    Journal of Chromatography A 06/2014; 1356. DOI:10.1016/j.chroma.2014.06.048 · 4.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Glass red top tubes (RTs), traditionally used to draw blood for biomonitoring studies, have some limitations during field sampling (e.g., tube breakage, timely processing may be difficult). This pilot study examined whether serum separation tubes (SSTs) with delayed processing time (48h) can be used instead of red top tubes (RTs) to accommodate field conditions. Using state-of-the-art methodologies, PBDEs, PCBs, OCPs, PFCs, cholesterol and triglycerides were measured to evaluate any differences among 2 test conditions (RTs with 2h processing time; SSTs with 48h processing time). Between the 2 test conditions, we observed high rank correlations among the measured compounds and no statistically significant differences in the levels of measured compounds. We conclude that SSTs with delayed processing time (48h) produce similar results as RTs with short processing time (2h), suggesting that SSTs could be good substitutes for RTs for new epidemiological and biomonitoring field studies. The use of SSTs offers a tremendous opportunity for the use of samples archived in various SSTs.
    Chemosphere 05/2014; 116. DOI:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2014.04.007 · 3.50 Impact Factor
  • Myrto Petreas, Jacob de Boer
    Chemosphere 04/2014; 116. DOI:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2014.04.009 · 3.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We characterized the variability in concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) measured in residential dust. Vacuum cleaner samples were collected from 289 homes in the California Childhood Leukemia Study during two sampling rounds from 2001 to 2010 and 15 PCBs were measured by high resolution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Median concentrations of high-volume PCBs (i.e., PCBs 28, 52, 101, 105, 118, 138, 153, and 180) ranged from 1.0-5.8 ng per g of dust in the first sampling round and from 0.8-3.4 ng/g in the second sampling round. For each of these eight PCBs, we used a random-effects model to apportion total variation into regional variability (6-11%), intra-regional between-home variability (27-56%), within-home variability over time (18-52%), and within-sample variability (9-16%). In mixed-effects models, differences in PCB concentrations between homes were explained by home age, with older homes having higher PCB levels. Differences in PCB concentrations within homes were explained by decreasing time trends. Estimated half-lives ranged from 5-18 years, indicating that PCBs are removed very slowly from the indoor environment. Our findings suggest that it may be feasible to use residential dust for retrospective assessment of PCB exposures in studies of children's health.
    Environmental Science & Technology 12/2013; 48(1). DOI:10.1021/es403863m · 5.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Prenatal exposures to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) can harm neurodevelopment in humans and animals. In 2003-2004, PentaBDE and OctaBDE were banned in California and phased-out of US production; resulting impacts on human exposures are unknown. We previously reported that median serum concentrations of PBDEs and their metabolites (OH-PBDEs) among second trimester pregnant women recruited from San Francisco General Hospital (2008-2009; n = 25) were the highest among pregnant women worldwide. We recruited another cohort from the same clinic in 2011-2012 (n = 36) and now compare serum concentrations of PBDEs, OH-PBDEs, polychlorinated biphenyl ethers (PCBs) (structurally similar compounds banned in 1979), and OH-PCBs between two demographically similar cohorts. Between 2008-2009 and 2011-2012, adjusted least-squares geometric mean (LSGM) concentrations of ∑PBDEs decreased 65% (95% CI: 18, 130) from 90.0 ng/g lipid (95% CI: 64.7, 125.2) to 54.6 ng/g lipid (95% CI: 39.2, 76.2) (p = 0.004); ∑OH-PBDEs decreased 6-fold (p < 0.0001); and BDE-47, -99, and -100 declined more than BDE-153. There was a modest, nonsignificant (p = 0.13) decline in LSGM concentrations of ∑PCBs and minimal differences in ∑OH-PCBs between 2008-2009 and 2011-2012. PBDE exposures are likely declining due to regulatory action, but the relative stability in PCB exposures suggests PBDE exposures may eventually plateau and persist for decades.
    Environmental Science & Technology 09/2013; 47(20). DOI:10.1021/es402204y · 5.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Concerns about the adverse health effects of ubiquitous flame retardants spurred our interest in the development of a sensitive and reliable analytical method for these toxic compounds in various sample matrices. This study focuses on the investigation of fragmentation pathways and the structures of target ions of thirteen new halogenated flame retardants. In this study, we use gas chromatography (GC)/high-resolution double-focusing sector mass spectrometry to characterize the fragmentation pathways of these new flame retardants. Along with the isotope patterns, accurate mass data were acquired to verify the molecular formula. The fragmentation pathways are classified based on the types of bond dissociations, e.g. σ-bond cleavage, α-bond cleavage and multiple-bond dissociations with a hydrogen shift. The α-bond dissociation occurs among 1,2-bis-(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)ethane, allyl 2,4,6-tribromophenyl ether (ATE), 2,3-dibromopropyl 2,4,6-tribromophenyl ether (DPTE) and 2-bromoallyl 2,4,6-tribromophenyl ether (BATE). The peak clusters that dominated ATE, BATE and hexachlorocyclopentenyl-dibromocyclooctane (HCDBCO) spectra correspond to two fragments as proved by accurate mass data and isotope patterns. These two fragments are formed as the result of two competing fragmentation pathways of radical loss and hydrogen shift. Fragmentation pathways of the other compounds are complex, involving cleavage of multiple bonds and hydrogen shifts. The accurate-mass-based GC/MS method offers great selectivity and sensitivity for quantitative analysis of the persistent organic pollutants. Thus, elucidation of the structures of the fragments is of prime importance for building an accurate-mass-based isotopic method. In addition, this study is useful for GC/MS/MS method development because multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) transitions of precursor ions and product ions may be easily elucidated based on these fragmentation patterns. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry 07/2013; 27(13):1437-49. DOI:10.1002/rcm.6588 · 2.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We characterized the sources of variability for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in residential dust and provided guidance for investigators who plan to use residential dust to assess exposure to PBDEs. We collected repeat dust samples from 292 households in the Northern California Childhood Leukemia Study during two sampling rounds (from 2001 to 2007 and during 2010) using household vacuum cleaners and measured 22 PBDEs using high resolution gas chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry. Median concentrations for individual PBDEs ranged from <0.1-2500ng per g of dust. For each of eight representative PBDEs, we used a random-effects model to apportion total variance into regional variability (0-11%), intra-regional between-household variability (17-50%), within-household variability over time (38-74%), and within-sample variability (0-23%) and we used a mixed-effects model to identify determinants of PBDE levels. Regional differences in PBDE dust levels were associated with residential characteristics that differed by region, including the presence of furniture with exposed or crumbling foam and the recent installation of carpets in the residence. Intra-regional differences between households were associated with neighborhood urban density, racial and ethnic characteristics, and to a lesser extent, income. For some PBDEs, a decreasing time trend explained a modest fraction of the within-household variability; however, most of the within-household variability was unaccounted for by our mixed-effects models. Our findings indicate that it may be feasible to use residential dust for retrospective assessment of PBDE exposures in studies of children's health (e.g., the Northern California Childhood Leukemia Study).
    Environment international 04/2013; 57-58C:11-24. DOI:10.1016/j.envint.2013.03.003 · 5.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were widely used as flame retardants in the past three decades. These compounds are lipophilic and easily cross the placenta from pregnant woman to fetus. It is not clear whether hydroxylated PBDEs (OH-PBDEs), with greater hydrophilicity, have different concentrations in maternal and cord serum samples. We analyzed PBDEs (BDE-28, -47, -99, -100, -153, -154, -209) and OH-PBDEs (6-OH-BDE-47, 5-OH-BDE-47, 4'-OH-BDE-49, 5'-OH-BDE-99) in 20 pairs of maternal and cord serum samples collected in Cincinnati, OH in 2011. The geometric mean concentration of ƩOH-BDEs (the sum of four OH-PBDEs) was 49.76 pg/ml in cord sera, higher than 32.84 pg/ml in maternal sera. Similarly, cord serum total BDEs had a higher geometric mean than maternal serum (45.51 vs. 32.07 ng/g lipid). Equal or higher levels of total OH-BDEs and total BDEs in cord serum were observed in 85% and 80% of the mother-neonate pairs, respectively. The study suggests fetuses might receive higher OH-PBDE and PBDE exposure than their mothers.
    Environmental Science & Technology 03/2013; 47(8). DOI:10.1021/es3046839 · 5.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: There is interest in using residential dust to estimate human exposure to environmental contaminants. Objectives: We aimed to characterize the sources of variability for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in residential dust and provide guidance for investigators who plan to use residential dust to assess exposure to PAHs. Methods: We collected repeat dust samples from 293 households in the Northern California Childhood Leukemia Study during two sampling rounds (from 2001 through 2007 and during 2010) using household vacuum cleaners, and measured 12 PAHs using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. We used a random- and a mixed-effects model for each PAH to apportion observed variance into four components and to identify sources of variability. Results: Median concentrations for individual PAHs ranged from 10 to 190 ng/g of dust. For each PAH, total variance was apportioned into regional variability (1–9%), intraregional between-household variability (24–48%), within-household variability over time (41–57%), and within-sample analytical variability (2–33%). Regional differences in PAH dust levels were associated with estimated ambient air concentrations of PAH. Intraregional differences between households were associated with the residential construction date and the smoking habits of residents. For some PAHs, a decreasing time trend explained a modest fraction of the within-household variability; however, most of the within-household variability was unaccounted for by our mixed-effects models. Within-household differences between sampling rounds were largest when the interval between dust sample collections was at least 6 years in duration. Conclusions: Our findings indicate that it may be feasible to use residential dust for retrospective assessment of PAH exposures in studies of health effects.
    Environmental Health Perspectives 03/2013; 121(5). DOI:10.1289/ehp.1205821 · 7.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) are persistent endocrine disruptors. OCPs cross the placenta; this prenatal exposure has been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. We investigated associations between prenatal exposure to OCPs and gestational age and birth weight in 600 infants born between 1960 and 1963. The primary OCP was 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (p,p'-DDT), its primary metabolite, 1,1'-dichloro-2,2'-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (p,p'-DDE) and the contaminant, 1,1,1-trichloro-2-(p-chlorophenyl)-2-(o-chlorophenyl)-ethane (o,p'-DDT). Regression analysis indicated that for each natural log unit increase in p,p'-DDT, birth weight increased by 274 grams (95% CI 122, 425) when controlling for p,p'-DDE and o,p'-DDT. At a given level of p,p'-DDT exposure, o,p'-DDT and p,p'-DDE were associated with decreased birth weight. p,p'-DDE was negatively associated with length of gestation, controlling for p,p'-DDT and o,p'-DDT. These findings suggest opposing associations between exposure to p,p'-DDT and p,p'-DDE and birth weight. We did not find evidence to support mediation by maternal thyroid hormone status nor that the association differed by sex.
    Reproductive Toxicology 11/2012; DOI:10.1016/j.reprotox.2012.10.013 · 2.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Ever since the interest in organic environmental contaminants first emerged 50years ago, there has been a need to present discussion of such chemicals and their transformation products using simple abbreviations so as to avoid the repetitive use of long chemical names. As the number of chemicals of concern has increased, the number of abbreviations has also increased dramatically, sometimes resulting in the use of different abbreviations for the same chemical. In this article, we propose abbreviations for flame retardants (FRs) substituted with bromine or chlorine atoms or including a functional group containing phosphorus, i.e. BFRs, CFRs and PFRs, respectively. Due to the large number of halogenated and organophosphorus FRs, it has become increasingly important to develop a strategy for abbreviating the chemical names of FRs. In this paper, a two step procedure is proposed for deriving practical abbreviations (PRABs) for the chemicals discussed. In the first step, structural abbreviations (STABs) are developed using specific STAB criteria based on the FR structure. However, since several of the derived STABs are complicated and long, we propose instead the use of PRABs. These are, commonly, an extract of the most essential part of the STAB, while also considering abbreviations previously used in the literature. We indicate how these can be used to develop an abbreviation that can be generally accepted by scientists and other professionals involved in FR related work. Tables with PRABs and STABs for BFRs, CFRs and PFRs are presented, including CAS (Chemical Abstract Service) numbers, notes of abbreviations that have been used previously, CA (Chemical Abstract) name, common names and trade names, as well as some fundamental physico-chemical constants.
    Environment international 09/2012; 49C:57-82. DOI:10.1016/j.envint.2012.08.003 · 5.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), known endocrine disruptors, were banned in 1979 but persist in the environment. Previous studies are inconsistent regarding prenatal exposure to PCBs and pregnancy outcomes. We investigated associations between prenatal exposure to PCBs and gestational length and birth weight. In a sample of 600 infants (born between 1960 and 1963) randomly selected from Child Health and Development Studies participants followed through adolescence we measured 11 PCB congeners in maternal post partum sera (within three days of delivery). Length of gestation was computed from the reported first day of the last menstrual period (LMP) and delivery date. Linear regression was used to estimate associations between PCB exposure and gestational age and birth weight, adjusting for potential confounders. PCBs were grouped according to hypothesized biological action (1b (sum of weak phenobarbital inducers), 2b (sum of limited dioxin activity), and 3 (sum of CYP1A and CYP2b inducers)) or degree of ortho- substitution (mono, di, tri). Secondary analyses examined associations between total PCB exposure and exposure to individual congeners. Each unit increase in mono-ortho substituted PCBs was associated with a 0.30 week decrease (95% confidence interval (CI) -0.59, -0.016), corresponding to a 2.1 (95% CI -4.13, -0.11) day decrease in length of gestation. Similar associations were estimated for di-ortho substituted PCBs, (1.4 day decrease; (95% CI -2.9, 0.1)) and group 3 PCBs (0.84 day decrease; (95% CI -1.8, 0.11). We found similar associations in congener specific analyses and for the sum of congeners. Our study provides new evidence that PCB exposure shortens length of gestation in humans. This may have public health implications for population exposures.
    Environmental Health 07/2012; 11:49. DOI:10.1186/1476-069X-11-49 · 2.71 Impact Factor
  • PPTOX III (Prenatal programming and toxicity); 05/2012
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    ABSTRACT: Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are brominated flame retardants that act as endocrine disruptors, affecting thyroid hormone homeostasis. As a follow-up to a recent study showing high PBDE levels in household cats and linking PBDE levels with cat hyperthyroidism, we measured PBDEs, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and organochlorinated pesticides (OCPs) in serum samples from 26 California household cats (16 hyperthyroid, 10 controls) using liquid-liquid extraction and high-resolution gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry. In the present pilot study, we found that PBDE levels in California house cats were extremely high (ΣPBDEs median = 2,904 ng/g lipid; range, 631-22,537 ng/g lipid). This is approximately 50 times higher than levels in California residents (ΣPBDEs geomean = 62 ± 8.9 ng/g lipid, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey), who have among the highest human levels in the world. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers congener patterns (BDE-99 major congener, BDE-209 significant) differed markedly from patterns found in California residents (BDE-47 major) or wildlife but resembled patterns found in house dust. Polychlorinated biphenyls and OCPs in cats were highly correlated, consistent with a shared dietary source or pathway of exposure, but did not correlate with PBDEs. This suggests a different source or pathway of exposure for PBDEs, which was most likely house dust. The authors found no evidence that linked levels of PBDEs, PCBs, or OCPs with hyperthyroidism. This may be because of the small sample size, competing or confounding risk factors, or complicated causal mechanisms.
    Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 02/2012; 31(2):301-6. DOI:10.1002/etc.1700 · 2.83 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

1k Citations
257.35 Total Impact Points


  • 2011–2013
    • United States Environmental Protection Agency
      • Environmental Chemistry Laboratory
      Cincinnati, Ohio, United States
  • 2005–2012
    • California Environmental Protection Agency (Cal/EPA)
      • Department of Toxic Substances Control
      Sacramento, California, United States
  • 2007
    • University of Maine
      Orono, Minnesota, United States
  • 2004
    • San Francisco Department of Public Health
      San Francisco, California, United States
  • 2003–2004
    • State of California
      California City, California, United States
  • 1997
    • University of California, Santa Cruz
      • Department of Chemistry & Biochemistry
      Santa Cruz, California, United States
  • 1991
    • California Department of Health Care Services
      Sacramento, California, United States