Michael J. Luzzio

Research Triangle Park Laboratories, Inc., Raleigh, North Carolina, United States

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Publications (10)39.93 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: ChemInform is a weekly Abstracting Service, delivering concise information at a glance that was extracted from about 100 leading journals. To access a ChemInform Abstract of an article which was published elsewhere, please select a “Full Text” option. The original article is trackable via the “References” option.
    ChemInform 11/2010; 29(46).
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    ABSTRACT: ChemInform is a weekly Abstracting Service, delivering concise information at a glance that was extracted from about 100 leading journals. To access a ChemInform Abstract of an article which was published elsewhere, please select a “Full Text” option. The original article is trackable via the “References” option.
    ChemInform 09/2010; 26(38).
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    ABSTRACT: Lurtotecan is a clinically active water-soluble camptothecin analogue that has been formulated into a low-clearance unilamellar liposome, NX 211. Comparative studies between free drug and NX 211 have been performed assessing pharmacokinetics in nude mice, tissue distribution in tumor-bearing mice, and antitumor efficacy in xenografts. Compared with lurtotecan, NX 211 demonstrated a significant increase in plasma residence time and a subsequent 1500-fold increase in the plasma area under the drug concentration curve. The volume of distribution was also greatly restricted, suggesting altered tissue distribution. Evaluation of tissues 24 h after administration of either [14C]NX 211 or [14C]lurtotecan to ES-2 tumor-bearing mice demonstrated a 40-fold increase in radiolabeled compound in the tumors of NX 211-treated mice compared with mice treated with lurtotecan. In single-dose efficacy studies, NX 211 produced a consistent 3-fold or greater increase in therapeutic index compared with lurtotecan in both the KB and ES-2 xenograft models. When compared at equitoxic levels in repeat-dose efficacy studies, NX 211 generated durable cures lasting >60 days and a 2-8-fold increase in log10 cell kill, compared with lurtotecan and topotecan, respectively. Together, these data demonstrate that NX 211 has significant therapeutic advantage over lurtotecan and that the improved antitumor activity is consistent with increased exposure and enhanced drug delivery to tumor sites.
    Clinical Cancer Research 08/2000; 6(7):2903-12. · 8.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Novel antitumor 5,10-dihydro-5,10-dioxo-1H- benzo[g]isochromene-3-carboxamides were discovered.
    Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters 08/1998; 8(13):1579-84. · 2.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Eleven water soluble 7-substituted quaternary ammonium salt derivatives of 10,11-(methylenedioxy)- and 10,11-(ethylenedioxy)-(20S)-camptothecin were synthesized via the Friedlander reaction followed by nucleophilic displacement with an aromatic amine. All of these compounds were more potent than camptothecin in the in vitro cleavable complex assay. These inherently charged camptothecin derivatives were cytotoxic against three different human tumor cell lines (SKOV3, an ovarian adenocarcinoma; SKVLB a multidrug resistant ovarian adenocarcinoma; and HT-29, a colon carcinoma). A selected group of five compounds was evaluated in the nude mouse HT-29 xenograft model. Two of these quaternary salts (17 and 18) were more efficacious than Topotecan in delaying tumor growth. In an extended in vivo model, 18 demonstrated tumor regression.
    Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 03/1996; 39(3):713-9. · 5.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The syntheses of the Fmoc-protected Peptide Nucleic Acid (PNA) monomer pentafluorophenyl esters of adenine (26), cytosine (23), guanine (29) and thymine (20), and their oligomerization are described. The Fmoc PNA backbone 1 is prepared as a stable hydrochloride salt. The base acetic acids of adenine (4) and cytosine (3) were prepared by Cbz protection of the exocyclic amino groups followed by alkylation with t-butylbromoacetate and subsequent acid hydrolysis of the t-butyl ester. Allylation of 6-chloro-2-aminopurine followed by acid hydrolysis, Cbz protection with N-(benzyloxycarbonyl)imidazole, ozonolytic cleavage, and oxidation afforded the Cbz-protected guanine acetic acid (5). The base acetic acids (2, 3, 4 and 5) were coupled to the backbone (1) with either EDC (2 and 3) or BOP reagent (4 and 5). Acid hydrolysis of the resulting t-butyl esters and transesterification afforded the corresponding pentafluorophenyl esters (20, 23, 26 and 29). Oligomerization is conducted on a 0.05 mmol scale with a mere 2 fold excess of monomer in each coupling cycle. The N-terminal Fmoc group is retained on the final oligomer, following HF cleavage and deprotection, providing a convenient lipophilic handle for HPLC purification.
    Tetrahedron 05/1995; 51(22):6179-6194. · 2.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A series of analogs based on a novel template, 11-aza-(20S)-camptothecin, were obtained from total synthesis and tested as potential anticancer drugs in the topoisomerase I enzyme cleavable complex assay. The parent compound 11-aza-(20S)-camptothecin (8) was derived from a Friedlander condensation between the known aminopyridine derivative 3-(3-amino-4-picolylidene)-p-toluidine and optically active tricyclic ketone 7. Compound 8 had activity approximately twice that of (20S)-camptothecin in the calf thymus topoisomerase I cleavable complex assay. Compounds were prepared wherein the 11-aza nitrogen atom was quaternized as either the corresponding N-oxide or methyl iodide. Compounds with quaternized N-11 showed improved water solubility and were equipotent to the clinically investigated camptothecin analog topotecan in the cleavable complex assay. These compounds were evaluated in vivo in nude mice bearing HT-29 human colon carcinoma xenografts. The analog 11-aza-(20S)-camptothecin 11-N-oxide was found to significantly retard tumor growth when compared to untreated controls. Finally, 7,10-disubstituted 11-azacamptothecin analogs were synthesized using Pd(0) coupling reactions of 10-bromo-7-alkyl-11-aza-(20S)-camptothecins 19 and 20, which in turn were available from a Friedlander condensation of the novel bromopyridine derivatives 17a and 17b with 7. Among the 10-substituted series, a number of analogs displayed extremely high in vitro potency against topoisomerase I and improved aqueous solubility. A significant number of the compounds were found to be active in whole cell cytotoxicity assays and several were evaluated in nude mice bearing the HT-29 tumor xenografts. The most effective of these proved to be (S)-11-aza-7-ethyl-10-(aminohydroximinomethyl)camptothecin trifluoracetic acid salt (27), a potent topoisomerase I inhibitor which demonstrated excellent efficacy in both short term and in extended in vivo assays. A comparison between in vitro enzyme data and in vivo data from nude mouse studies in other compounds in this series revealed a poor overall correlation between topoisomerase inhibition in vitro and antitumor efficacy in vivo.
    Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 04/1995; 38(7):1106-18. · 5.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The development of camptothecin-like compounds as inhibitors of topoisomerase I for the treatment of resistant tumors has generated clinical excitement in this new class of drugs. We have developed two novel water-soluble camptothecin analogues which are specific inhibitors of topoisomerase I and are potent cytotoxins with significant antitumor activity. We added water-solubilizing groups off position 7 in the B ring of either 10,11-ethylenedioxy- or 10,11-methylenedioxy-20(S)-camptothecin. These water-soluble camptothecin analogues were demonstrated to be nanamolar inhibitors of the topoisomerase I enzyme in the cleavable complex assay. The compounds, GI147211 [7-(4-methylpiperazinomethylene)-10,11-ethylenedioxy-20(S)-camp tot hecin], and GI149893 [7-(4-methylpiperazinomethylene)-10,11-methylenedioxy-20(S)-cam pto thecin], were compared to topotecan, a known water-soluble inhibitor of topoisomerase I. Both GI compounds were found to be slightly more potent than topotecan as inhibitors of topoisomerase I in the cleavable complex assay and were 1.5-2 times more soluble. Tumor cell cytotoxicity assays using 5 separate cell lines demonstrated that both GI compounds were 5-10 times more potent than topotecan, although by comparison all three topoisomerase I inhibitors were unaffected by the multidrug resistance P-glycoprotein. The antitumor activity of all three topoisomerase I inhibitors was compared concomitantly in two human colon xenograft models. In both models, GI147211 and GI149893 were able to induce regression of established HT-29 and SW-48 colon tumors by as much as 60%. The antitumor activity of both compounds were also demonstrated in the MX-1 and PC-3 xenografts. Microscopic examination of selected tissues indicated that drug-induced toxicity was primarily limited to the gastrointestinal tract and was comparable among the three compounds. Further clinical development of this class of compounds is ongoing.
    Cancer Research 03/1995; 55(3):603-9. · 9.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The synthesis and antitumor activities of the novel water soluble camptothecin derivatives 7-[(4-methylpiperazino)methyl]-10,11-(methylenedioxy)-(20S)-campto thecin trifluoroacetate (6) and 7-[(4-methylpiperazino)methyl]-10,11-(ethylenedioxy)-(20S)-camptot hecin trifluoroacetate (7) are described. The solubilities of compounds 6 and 7 were measured to be 4.5 and 5.8 mg/mL, respectively, in pH 5 acetate buffer in contrast to < 0.003 mg/mL for camptothecin in the same buffer. In the purified topoisomerase I cleavable complex enzyme assay, compounds 6 and 7 demonstrated potent inhibition of topoisomerase I with IC50's of 300 and 416 nM, respectively, in comparison to 679 nM for camptothecin and 1028 nM for topotecan. In human tumor cell cytotoxicity assays, compounds 6 and 7 demonstrated potent antitumor activity against ovarian (SKOV3), ovarian with upregulated MDRp-glycoprotein (SKVLB), melanoma (LOX), breast (T47D), and colon (HT29) with IC50's ranging from 0.5 to 102 nM. Compounds 6 and 7 induced tumor regressions in the HT29 human colon tumor xenograft model and demonstrated similar rank order of potency compared to in vitro assay results.
    Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 03/1995; 38(3):395-401. · 5.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Peptide nucleic acids (PNA) are oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) analogs in which the sugar phosphate backbone of the ODN has been replaced by one derived from units of N-ethylaminoglycine. PNAs recognize DNA and RNA in a sequence specific manner and form complexes that can be characterized by biophysical methods. The binding motif is context dependent; homopyrimidine PNAs combine with complementary polypurine targets to form stoichiometric 2:1 complexes, whereas PNAs containing both purine and pyrimidine bases afford a 1:1 heteroduplex with mis-match sensitivity comparable to that found in dsDNA. These complexes mediate the antigene and antisense effects of PNAs via the steric blockade of enzyme complexes responsible for DNA transcription, cDNA synthesis, and RNA translation. PNAs, like ODNs, are taken up by cells via endocytosis leading to their entrapment within intracytoplasmic vesicles. Under circumstances where agent delivery is solved by cell microinjection, PNAs can effect selective inhibition of endogenous and exogenous genes. The impact of biophysical parameters on the biological assessment of PNAs as antisense inhibitors of gene expression is presented and discussed. © 1995 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Drug Development Research 01/1995; 34(2):184 - 195. · 0.87 Impact Factor