[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: UL30, the herpes simplex virus type-1 DNA polymerase, stalls at the base preceding a cisplatin crosslinked 1,2 d(GpG) dinucleotide and engages in a futile cycle of incorporation and excision by virtue of its 3'-5' exonuclease. Therefore, we examined the translesion synthesis (TLS) potential of an exonuclease-deficient UL30 (UL30D368A). We found that UL30D368A did not perform complete translesion synthesis but incorporated one nucleotide opposite the first base of the adduct. This addition was affected by the propensity of the enzyme to dissociate from the damaged template. Consequently, addition of the polymerase processivity factor, UL42, increased nucleotide incorporation opposite the lesion. The addition of Mn(2+), which was previously shown to support translesion synthesis by wild-type UL30, also enabled limited bypass of the adduct by UL30D368A. We show that the primer terminus opposite the crosslinked d(GpG) dinucleotide and at least three bases downstream of the lesion is unpaired and not extended by the enzyme. These data indicate that the primer terminus opposite the lesion may be sequestered into the exonuclease site of the enzyme. Consequently, elimination of exonuclease activity alone, without disrupting binding, is insufficient to permit bypass of a bulky lesion by this enzyme.
DNA Repair 07/2004; 3(6):659-69. · 4.27 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The mechanism of stimulation of a DNA helicase by its cognate single-strand DNA-binding protein was examined using herpes simplex virus type-1 UL9 DNA helicase and ICP8. UL9 and ICP8 are two essential components of the viral replisome that associate into a complex to unwind the origins of replication. The helicase and DNA-stimulated ATPase activities of UL9 are greatly elevated as a consequence of this association. Given that ICP8 acts as a single-strand DNA-binding protein, the simplest model that can account for its stimulatory effect predicts that it tethers UL9 to the DNA template, thereby increasing its processivity. In contrast to the prediction, data presented here show that the stimulatory activity of ICP8 does not depend on its single-strand DNA binding activity. Our data support an alternative hypothesis in which ICP8 modulates the activity of UL9. Accordingly, the data show that the ICP8-binding site of UL9 constitutes an inhibitory region that maintains the helicase in an inefficient ground state. ICP8 acts as a positive regulator by neutralizing this region. ICP8 does not affect substrate binding, ATP hydrolysis, or the efficiency of translocation/DNA unwinding. Rather, we propose that ICP8 increases the efficiency with which substrate binding and ATP hydrolysis are coupled to translocation/DNA unwinding.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 04/2001; 276(9):6840-5. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Herpes simplex virus type-1 origin-binding protein (UL9 protein) initiates viral replication by unwinding the origins. It possesses sequence-specific DNA-binding activity, single-stranded DNA-binding activity, DNA helicase activity, and ATPase activity that is strongly stimulated by single-stranded DNA. We have examined the role of cysteines in its action as a DNA helicase. The DNA helicase and DNA-dependent ATPase activities of UL9 protein were stimulated by reducing agent and specifically inactivated by the sulfhydryl-specific reagent N-ethylmaleimide. To identify the cysteine responsible for this phenomenon, a conserved cysteine in the vicinity of the ATP-binding site (cysteine 111) was mutagenized to alanine. UL9C111A protein exhibits defects in its DNA helicase and DNA-dependent ATPase activities and was unable to support origin-specific DNA replication in vivo. A kinetic analysis indicates that these defects are due to the inability of single-stranded DNA to induce high affinity ATP binding in UL9C111A protein. The DNA-dependent ATPase activity of UL9C111A protein is resistant to N-ethylmaleimide, while its DNA helicase activity remains sensitive. Accordingly, sensitivity of UL9 protein to N-ethylmaleimide is due to at least two cysteines. Cysteine 111 is involved in coupling single-stranded DNA binding to ATP-binding and subsequent hydrolysis, while a second cysteine is involved in coupling ATP hydrolysis to DNA unwinding.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 02/2000; 275(4):2931-7. · 4.65 Impact Factor