[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV) is the major cause of late death in patients undergoing heart transplantation (HT). The most validated method for its diagnosis is intravascular ultrasound (IVUS), and there are no sufficiently reliable non-invasive methods. von Willebrand factor (vWF) is a marker of endothelial dysfunction/activity that is rarely studied in the context of CAV. The purpose of this study was to determine whether patients with higher levels of vWF in the first year post-transplant will develop a greater degree of CAV.
A prospective study of 113 consecutive cardiac transplant recipients was initiated in January 2002. vWF determinations were performed at 1, 2, 4, 6, 9 and 12 months post-transplant, at the same time as biopsies. Coronary arteriography and IVUS were performed on the first and last follow-up visits. Heart-lung transplants, retransplants and pediatric transplants were excluded from the study. Patients who died in the first month and those who refused consent were also excluded. The final analysis included 72 patients and 405 vWF determinations. CAV was defined as an intimal thickening of >or=0.5 mm on follow-up versus baseline IVUS. Patients with CAV (n = 41) and without CAV (n = 31) after 1 year of follow-up were compared.
Patients who developed CAV had a higher prevalence of prior dyslipidemia, ischemic heart disease as the cause of HT, and rate of rejection, as well as higher vWF levels (321 +/- 122 vs 243 +/- 100%, p < 0.05). The receiver-operator characteristic (ROC) curve showed that vWF values of 150% provided a sensitivity of 91%, and values of 400% a specificity of 91% (p < 0.0001). The variables associated with CAV in the multivariate analysis were prior dyslipidemia, rejections and vWF, both linearly and by groups. vWF levels of 300% to 400% increased the probability of developing CAV by 390%, and levels >400% by 500%, versus levels <200%.
vWF levels determined in the first year post-transplant help to distinguish a subgroup of patients with a higher incidence of CAV.
The Journal of heart and lung transplantation: the official publication of the International Society for Heart Transplantation 07/2008; 27(7):760-6. DOI:10.1016/j.healun.2008.04.010 · 5.61 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present study evaluated the clinical and hemodynamic situation of patients with advanced heart failure considered for heart transplantation (HT) to examine the possible impact of prior cardiac disease.
We analyzed the pretransplant clinical, echocardiographic, and hemodynamic parameters of 422 consecutive HT patients. Pediatric and heart plus lung transplants were excluded, as were retransplantations. The results were compared by dividing the patients into three groups according to the background heart disease that led to HT: ischemic heart disease (IHD), dilated myocardiopathy (DMC), or valvular disease.
Differences were observed in the baseline characteristics according to the type of heart disease. Male gender, hypertension, and diabetes were more frequent among IHD, while DMC patients tended to be younger. There were no differences in the clinical parameters such as liver and kidney function, in the functional class, or in the need for inotropic treatment over the days prior to transplantation. Likewise, no differences were recorded in the hemodynamic parameters, such as pulmonary pressure, pulmonary vascular resistance, or transpulmonary pressure gradient. As regards the echocardiographic parameters, the patients with DMC showed greater ventricular diameters and lesser ejection fractions for both ventricles.
No important differences were recorded in the clinical situation or hemodynamic parameters of patients with advanced heart failure accepted for transplantation, according to the background cardiac disease. This observation could be due to the homogenization by strict transplant waiting list inclusion criteria.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV) is a disease that significantly limits the survival of transplant patients intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) is considered the method of choice for its diagnosis. von Willebrand factor (vWf) has been used as a marker of endothelial malfunction. We sought to evaluate the usefulness of vWf as a CAV marker.
We prospectively analyzed 22 cardiac transplant subjects, on whom we performed a first study using coronary angiography and IVUS at 36 +/- 3 days and a second study at 598 +/- 49 days. During the follow-up period, five vWf serum controls were performed per patient. We analyzed the results with the repeated-measures ANOVA test and a ROC curve.
CAV was detected in 10 (45.5%) of the 22 patients. Although vWf levels tended to diminish progressively during evolution, this trend was not statistically significant (P = .3). However, differences were appreciated based on the presence versus absence of CAV (298 +/- 139 mg/dL versus 212 +/- 105 mg/dL, P = .02). The ROC curve showed a sensitivity of 40%, a specificity of 83%, and a negative predictive value of 82% with a cutoff point of 300 mg/dL.
Subjects with CAV showed significantly higher vWf serum concentrations, particularly during the preliminary phases of cardiac transplantation decreasing during its evolution. This marker could be useful for early screening of CAV.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Graft vessel disease (GVD) is one of the main long-term complications in heart transplant (HT) patients. At present, the diagnosis of this complication requires invasive procedures. Multislice CT is an emerging technique that allows visualization of the coronary anatomy, including the vascular lumen and wall thickness. Our objective was to establish the value of 16-detector multislice CT in the detection of GVD, compared with angiography and intravascular ultrasound (IVUS).
We studied 32 HT patients, who had a mean follow-up of 2016 days. CT was performed 24 hours prior to angiography, associated with IVUS if the latter proved normal. Comparisons were subsequently made using contingency tables to establish the sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values of the CT.
Angiography was not performed on two patients, and eight were excluded from CT assessment due to serum creatinine values >1.5 mg/dL. Comparison of the CT findings with the invasive techniques yielded a sensitivity of 50%, a specificity of 81%, a negative predictive value of 81%, a positive predictive value of 50%, and a precision of 72%.
Our results suggested good performance of the technique in screening for GVD because a high negative predictive value was recorded. We plan to increase the number of patients and use the 64-detector CT system to ensure greater time and spatial resolution.