[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Two small case series of platelet mitochondrial complex I activity assays in Huntington's Disease (HD) report discrepant results. We measured platelet complex I and complex I/III activity in 21 subjects with early gene-positive HD and 14 age-matched controls. The 21 participants with HD that we studied are greater than the total of 16 in the two previously published of platelet ETS activity in HD. Reductions > 10% were excluded with 80% confidence. A systemic defect in complex I activity is not present in early HD when striatal neuronal degeneration is already present.
Neurobiology of Disease 08/2007; 27(1):99-101. · 5.62 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Activity of complexes II, III, and IV of the mitochondrial electron transport system (ETS) is reduced in postmortem Huntington's disease (HD) striatum, suggesting that reduced cerebral oxidative phosphorylation may be important in the pathogenesis of neuronal death. We investigated mitochondrial oxidative metabolism in vivo in the striatum of 20 participants with early, genetically proven HD and 15 age-matched normal controls by direct measurements of the molar ratio of cerebral oxygen metabolism to cerebral glucose metabolism (CMRO(2)/CMRglc) with positron emission tomography. There was a significant increase in striatal CMRO(2)/CMRglc in HD rather than the decrease characteristic of defects in mitochondrial oxidative metabolism (6.0 +/- 1.6 vs. 5.1 +/- 0.9, P = 0.04). CMRO(2) was not different from controls (126 +/- 37 vs. 134 +/- 31 micromol 100 g(-1) min(-1), P = 0.49), whereas CMRglc was decreased (21.6 +/- 6.1 vs. 26.4 +/- 4.6 micromol 100 g(-1) min(-1), P = 0.01). Striatal volume was decreased as well (13.9 +/- 3.5 vs. 17.6 +/- 2.0 ml, P = 0.001). Increased striatal CMRO(2)/CMRglc with unchanged CMRO(2) is inconsistent with a defect in mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation due to reduced activity of the mitochondrial ETS. Because HD pathology was already manifest by striatal atrophy, deficient energy production due to a reduced activity of the mitochondrial ETS is not important in the mechanism of neuronal death in early HD. Because glycolytic metabolism is predominantly astrocytic, the selective reduction in striatal CMRglc raises the possibility that astrocyte dysfunction may be involved in the pathogenesis of HD.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 03/2007; 104(8):2945-9. · 9.74 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Parkinson disease (PD) is a late onset disorder with age-dependent penetrance that may confound genetic studies, since affected individuals may not demonstrate clinical manifestations at the time of evaluation. The use of endophenotypes, biologic surrogates for clinical disease diagnoses, may permit more accurate classification of at-risk subjects. Positron emission tomography (PET) measurements of 6-[18F]fluorodopa ([18F]FDOPA) uptake indicate nigrostriatal neuronal integrity and may provide a useful endophenotype for PD linkage studies. We performed [18F]FDOPA PET in 11 members of a large, multi-incident Amish family with PD, 24 normals and 48 people with clinically definite idiopathic PD (PD controls). Clinical diagnoses in the Amish were clinically definite PD in four, clinically probable in one, clinically possible in five, and normal in one. Abnormal [18F]FDOPA posterior putamen uptake was defined as less than 3 standard deviations below the normal mean. The criteria were applied to the Amish sample to determine a PET endophenotype for each. We performed genetic simulations using SLINK to model the effect phenoconversion with the PET endophenotype had on logarithm of odds (LOD) scores. PET endophenotype confirmed the status of two clinically definite subjects. Two clinically definite Amish PD subjects had normal PETs. Two possible PD were converted to "PET definite PD." The remainder had normal PETs. The average maximum LOD score with the pre-PET was 6.14 +/- 0.84. Simulating phenoconversion of subjects with unknown phenotypes increased the LOD score to 7.36 +/- 1.23. The [18F]FDOPA PET endophenotype permits phenoconversion in multi-incident PD families and may increase LOD score accuracy and power of an informative pedigree.
American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B Neuropsychiatric Genetics 05/2006; 141B(3):245-9. · 3.23 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Manganese exposure reportedly causes a clinically and pathophysiologically distinct syndrome from idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD). We describe the clinical features and results of positron emission tomography with 6-[18F]fluorodopa ([18F]FDOPA PET) of a patient with parkinsonism occurring in the setting of elevated blood manganese. The patient developed parkinsonism associated with elevated serum manganese from hepatic dysfunction. [18F]FDOPA PET demonstrated relatively symmetric and severely reduced [18F]FDOPA levels in the posterior putamen compared to controls. The globus pallidum interna had increased signal on T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images. We conclude that elevated manganese exposure may be associated with reduced striatal [18F]FDOPA uptake, and MRI may reveal selective abnormality within the internal segment of the pallidum. This case suggests that the clinical and pathophysiological features of manganese-associated parkinsonism may overlap with that of PD.
Movement Disorders 05/2005; 20(4):492-6. · 4.56 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We sought to determine the effect of deep brain stimulation (DBS) frequency on tremor suppression in essential tremor (ET) patients with deep brain stimulators implanted in the ventral intermediate nucleus (VIM) of the thalamus. A uniaxial accelerometer was used to measure tremor in the right upper extremity of subjects with a diagnosis of ET who had DBS electrodes implanted in the left VIM. The root-mean-square acceleration was used as the index of tremor magnitude and normalized to the OFF DBS condition. There was a highly significant inverse sigmoidal relationship between stimulation frequency and normalized tremor acceleration (X(2)/DoF = 0.42, r(2) = 0.997). Tremor acceleration had a nearly linear response to stimulation frequencies between 45 and 100 Hz with little additional benefit above 100 Hz. These findings have two important implications. Clinically, frequency of thalamic stimulation is an important variable for optimal tremor control with maximal benefit achieved with 100 to 130 Hz in most patients. Second, thalamic DBS provides tremor benefit in a graded manner and is not an all-or-nothing phenomenon.
Movement Disorders 11/2004; 19(10):1163-8. · 4.56 Impact Factor