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Publications (2)41.88 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Phototropins are light-activated kinases from plants that utilize light-oxygen-voltage (LOV) domains as blue light photosensors. Illumination of these domains leads to the formation of a covalent linkage between the protein and an internally bound flavin chromophore, destabilizing the surrounding protein and displacing an alpha-helix from its surface. Here we use a combination of spectroscopic tools to monitor the kinetic processes that spontaneously occur in the dark as the protein returns to the noncovalent ground state. Using time-resolved two-dimensional (2D) NMR methods, we measured the rate of this process at over 100 independent sites throughout the protein, establishing that regeneration of the dark state occurs cooperatively within a 1.6-fold range of observed rates. These data agree with other spectroscopic measurements of the kinetics of protein/FMN bond cleavage and global conformational changes, consistent with these processes experiencing a common rate-limiting step. Arrhenius analyses of the temperature dependence of these rates suggest that the transition state visited during this regeneration has higher energy than the denatured form of this protein domain despite the fact that there is no global unfolding of the domain during this process.
    Journal of the American Chemical Society 04/2004; 126(11):3390-1. · 10.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Phototropins are light-activated kinases important for plant responses to blue light. Light initiates signaling in these proteins by generating a covalent protein-flavin mononucleotide (FMN) adduct within sensory Per-ARNT-Sim (PAS) domains. We characterized the light-dependent changes of a phototropin PAS domain by solution nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and found that an alpha helix located outside the canonical domain plays a key role in this activation process. Although this helix associates with the PAS core in the dark, photoinduced changes in the domain structure disrupt this interaction. We propose that this mechanism couples light-dependent bond formation to kinase activation and identifies a signaling pathway conserved among PAS domains.
    Science 10/2003; 301(5639):1541-4. · 31.20 Impact Factor