L J Kozak

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Druid Hills, GA, United States

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Publications (31)41.06 Total impact

  • Carol J DeFrances, Karen A Cullen, Lola Jean Kozak
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    ABSTRACT: This report presents 2005 national estimates and selected trend data on the use of nonfederal short-stay hospitals in the United States. Estimates are provided by selected patient and hospital characteristics, diagnoses, and surgical and nonsurgical procedures performed. Estimates of diagnoses and procedures are presented according to International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes. The estimates are based on data collected through the National Hospital Discharge Survey. The survey has been conducted annually since 1965. In 2005, data were collected for approximately 375,000 discharges. Of the 473 eligible nonfederal short-stay hospitals in the sample, 444 (94 percent) responded to the survey. An estimated 34.7 million discharges from nonfederal short-stay hospitals occurred in 2005. Discharges used 165.9 million days of care and had an average length of stay of 4.8 days. Persons 65 years and over accounted for 38 percent of the hospital discharges and 44 percent of the days of care. The proportion of discharges whose status was described as routine discharge or discharged to the patient's home declined with age, from 91 percent for inpatients under 45 years of age to 41 percent for those 85 years and over. Hospitalization for malignant neoplasms decreased from 1990-2005. The hospitalization rate for asthma was the highest for children under 15 years of age and those 65 years of age and over. The rate was lowest for those 15-44 years of age. Thirty-eight percent of hospital discharges had no procedures performed, whereas 12 percent had four or more procedures performed. An episiotomy was performed during a majority of vaginal deliveries in 1980 (64 percent), but by 2005, it was performed during less than one of every five vaginal deliveries (19 percent).
    Vital and health statistics. Series 13, Data from the National Health Survey 01/2008;
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    Julia S Holmes, Lola Jean Kozak, Maria F Owings
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    ABSTRACT: This study used data from the National Hospital Discharge Survey to examine sex- and age-specific trends in use and in-hospital mortality associated with coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) among adults age forty-five and older during 1990-2004. Although use rates for PCI increased 58 percent over the study period, CABG use rates declined. In-hospital death rates declined or stayed the same even though comorbidities increased for patients who received the procedures. PCI and CABG use rates for men were at least twice those for women, although women generally had more comorbidities and higher in-hospital death rates.
    Health Affairs 01/2007; 26(1):169-77. · 4.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This report presents 2004 national estimates and selected trend data on the use of nonfederal short-stay hospitals in the United States. Estimates are provided by selected patient and hospital characteristics, diagnoses, and surgical and nonsurgical procedures performed. Estimates of diagnoses and procedures are presented according to International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) codes. The estimates are based on data collected through the National Hospital Discharge Survey (NHDS). The survey has been conducted annually since 1965. In 2004, data were collected for approximately 371,000 discharges. Of the 476 eligible nonfederal short-stay hospitals in the sample, 439 (92 percent) responded to the survey. An estimated 34.9 million inpatients were discharged from nonfederal short-stay hospitals in 2004. They used 167.9 million days of care and had an average length of stay of 4.8 days. Hospital use by age ranged from 4.3 million days of care for patients 5-14 years of age to 31.8 million days of care for 75-84 year olds. Almost a third of patients 85 years and over were discharged from hospitals to long-term care institutions. Diseases of the circulatory system was the leading diagnostic category for males. Childbirth was the leading category for females, followed by circulatory diseases. The proportion of HIV discharges who were 40 years of age and over increased from 40 percent in 1995 to 67 percent in 2004. The rate of cardiac catheterizations was higher for males than for females and higher for patients 65-74 and 75-84 years of age than for older or younger groups. The average length of stay for both vaginal and cesarean deliveries decreased from 1980 through 1995 but stays for vaginal deliveries increased 24 percent during the period from 1995 to 2004.
    Vital and health statistics. Series 13, Data from the National Health Survey 11/2006;
  • Lola Jean Kozak, Karen A Lees, Carol J DeFrances
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    ABSTRACT: This report presents 2003 national estimates and trend data on the use of non-Federal short-stay hospitals in the United States. Estimates are provided by patient and hospital characteristics, diagnoses, and surgical and nonsurgical procedures performed. Estimates of diagnoses and procedures are presented according to the International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) codes. The estimates are based on data collected through the National Hospital Discharge Survey (NHDS). The survey has been conducted annually since 1965. In 2003, data were collected for approximately 320,000 discharges. Of the 479 eligible non-Federal short-stay hospitals in the sample, 426 (89 percent) responded to the survey. An estimated 34.7 million inpatients were discharged from non-Federal short-stay hospitals in 2003. They used 167.3 million days of care and had an average length of stay of 4.8 days. Females used almost one-third more days of hospital care than males. Patients with five or more diagnoses rose from 29 percent of discharges in 1990 to 57 percent in 2003. The leading diagnostic category was respiratory diseases for children under 15 years, childbirth for 15-44 year olds, and circulatory diseases for patients 45 years of age and over. Only surgical procedures were performed for 27 percent of discharges, 18 percent had surgical and nonsurgical procedures, and 16 percent had only nonsurgical procedures. A total of 664,000 coronary angioplasties were performed, and stents were inserted during 86 percent of these procedures with drug-eluting stents used in 28 percent. The number and rate of total and primary cesarean deliveries rose from 1995 to 2003. The rate of vaginal birth after cesarean delivery dropped 58 percent, from 35.5 in 1995 to 14.8 in 2003.
    Vital and health statistics. Series 13, Data from the National Health Survey 06/2006;
  • Judith A Shinogle, Maria F Owings, Lola Jean Kozak
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    ABSTRACT: This paper describes national trends in gastric bypass procedures from 1998 through 2003 and explores the demographic and health profile of those who receive this procedure. Short-term outcomes such as length of stay and in-hospital complication rates are also examined. Data on obese hospital inpatients who had gastric bypass were obtained from the 1998 to 2003 National Hospital Discharge Survey. Gastric bypass was reported for an estimated 288,000 discharges during the 6-year study period. Trends within the 6-year period were tested using weighted regression. Characteristics of gastric bypass patients were compared with those of other inpatients using a chi(2) test of independence and the two-sided t test. The estimated number of hospital discharges with gastric bypass increased significantly, from 14,000 in 1998 to 108,000 in 2003. During this period, the average length of stay declined by 56% from 7.2 to 3.2 days. Gastric bypass patients were primarily women (84%), 25 to 54 years of age (82%), and privately insured (76%). A 1 in 10 complication rate was found for discharges with gastric bypass. Gastric bypass procedures in the United States have increased rapidly since 1998, whereas the average hospital stay has decreased. The decreasing length of stay needs to be evaluated in conjunction with potential complication rates and the permanent change in anatomy and lifestyle that must accompany this procedure. Monitoring trends in use of this procedure is important, especially if reimbursement policies change and the epidemic of obesity continues.
    Obesity research 01/2006; 13(12):2202-9. · 4.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This report presents 2002 national estimates and selected trend data on the use of non-Federal short-stay hospitals in the United States. Estimates are provided by selected patient and hospital characteristics, diagnoses, and surgical and nonsurgical procedures performed. Estimates of diagnoses and procedures are presented according to International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) codes. The estimates are based on data collected through the National Hospital Discharge Survey (NHDS). The survey has been conducted annually since 1965. In 2002, data were collected for approximately 327,000 discharges. Of the 474 eligible non-Federal short-stay hospitals in the sample, 445 (94 percent) responded to the survey. An estimated 33.7 million inpatients were discharged from non-Federal short-stay hospitals in 2002. They used 164.2 million days of care and had an average length of stay of 4.9 days. Common first-listed discharge diagnoses included delivery, ischemic heart disease, psychoses, pneumonia, and malignant neoplasms. Inpatients had 6.8 million cardiovascular procedures and 6.6 million obstetric procedures. Males had higher rates for cardiac procedures such as cardiac catheterization and coronary artery bypass graft, but males and females had similar rates of pacemaker procedures. The number and rate of all cesarean deliveries, primary and repeat, rose from 1995 to 2002; the rate of vaginal birth after cesarean delivery dropped from 35.5 in 1995 to 15.8 in 2002.
    Vital and health statistics. Series 13, Data from the National Health Survey 04/2005;
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    ABSTRACT: This report presents national estimates for 2000 and selected trend data on the use of non-Federal short-stay hospitals in the United States. Estimates are provided by demographic characteristics of patients discharged, geographic region, ownership and bed size of hospitals, principal expected source of payment, conditions diagnosed, and surgical and nonsurgical procedures performed. The estimates are based on data collected through the National Hospital Discharge Survey. The survey has been conducted annually by the National Center for Health Statistics since 1965. In 2000, data were collected for approximately 313,000 discharges. Of the 481 eligible non-Federal short-stay hospitals in the sample, 434 (90 percent) responded to the survey. Measurements of hospital use include number and rate of discharges and days of care, and the average length of stay. The population estimates used to compute rates were based on the 1990 Census. Estimates of first-listed diagnoses, days of care, all-listed diagnoses, and all-listed procedures are presented according to their code number in the International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM). An estimated 31.7 million inpatients were discharged from non-Federal short-stay hospitals in 2000. These patients used an estimated 155.9 million days of care. Females had 19.2 million discharges compared with 12.5 million for males. Fifty-four percent of all discharges under age 65 years had a principal expected source of payment from a private source, and 22 percent were covered by Medicaid. Discharge rates per 1,000 population ranged from 85.4 in the West to 135.5 in the Northeast. The leading discharge diagnosis was delivery for patients under age 65 years and heart disease for those 65 years of age and over. The rate of discharges with coronary artery bypass graft for males was 2.4 times the rate for females, and males had almost twice the female rate for discharges with removal of coronary artery obstruction. Hospital stays were 1 day or less for 15 percent of women with deliveries in 2000, compared with 37 percent in 1995.
    Vital and health statistics. Series 13, Data from the National Health Survey 12/2002;
  • L J Kozak, M J Hall, M F Owings
    Health Affairs 01/2001; 20(2):225-32. · 4.64 Impact Factor
  • L J Kozak, L Lawrence
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: This report presents national estimates of the use of non-Federal short-stay hospitals in the United States during 1997 and selected trend data. Estimates are provided by demographic characteristics of patients discharged, geographic region of hospitals, conditions diagnosed, and surgical and nonsurgical procedures performed. Measurements of hospital use include number and rate of discharges and days of care, and the average length of stay. METHODS: The estimates are based on data collected through the National Hospital Discharge Survey. The survey has been conducted annually by the National Center for Health Statistics since 1965. In 1997, data were collected for approximately 300,000 discharges. Of the 501 eligible non-Federal short-stay hospitals in the sample, 474 (95 percent) responded to the survey. Diagnoses and procedures were coded according to the International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification, or ICD-9-CM.
    Vital and health statistics. Series 13, Data from the National Health Survey 01/2000;
  • L J Kozak, E McCarthy, R Pokras
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    ABSTRACT: National inpatient and ambulatory surgery data were combined to examine changes over time in the location and amount of surgical care. The main pattern was a decline in the rate of inpatient operations that was outweighed by growth in ambulatory operations. However, the rate of inpatient operations did not decrease for patients age 65 years or over, despite the growth in ambulatory surgery. Other patterns seen for specific types of operations were the substitution of ambulatory for inpatient operations, increases primarily in the rate of inpatient operations, and decreases in total operations. These patterns have implications for control of health care costs.
    Health care financing review 02/1999; 21(1):31-49. · 2.06 Impact Factor
  • M J Hall, L J Kozak
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    ABSTRACT: In 1996 the elderly made 13.6 million visits to ambulatory and inpatient settings for surgery. This was 401.0 visits per 1,000 population, which was approximately three and a half times the rate of 114.4 for persons under 65. A total of 25.3 million procedures were performed during these visits. More of the elderly's procedures were performed during inpatient visits (14.5 million procedures) than during ambulatory visits (10.7 million procedures). Three-quarters of the procedures performed on the elderly were in four categories: operations on the eye, cardiovascular operations, operations on the digestive system, and miscellaneous diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. The leading procedures for this age group were extraction of lens, insertion of lens, arteriography and angiocardiography, and endoscopies of small and large intestines. Women who comprised the majority of the elderly population had a larger number of procedures than men, but elderly men had a higher rate per 1,000 population. The 65-74 year-old group had the largest number of procedures, followed by 75-84 year-olds and then the 85 years and older group, reflecting the decreasing population size of these age groups. But the 75-84 year and 85 years and over groups had higher rates of procedures than those aged 65 to 74.
    Statistical bulletin (Metropolitan Life Insurance Company: 1984) 01/1999; 80(2):22-31.
  • S C Curtin, L J Kozak
    Birth 01/1999; 25(4):259-62. · 2.93 Impact Factor
  • M F Owings, L J Kozak
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    ABSTRACT: This report presents estimates of surgical and nonsurgical procedures performed in the United States during 1996. Data are presented by characteristics of patients, region of the country, and procedure categories for ambulatory and inpatient procedures separately and combined. Estimates in this report are based on data collected from the National Hospital Discharge Survey (NHDS) and the National Survey of Ambulatory Surgery-(NSAS). NHDS provides data on hospital inpatient care, and NSAS provides data on ambulatory surgery in hospitals and in freestanding ambulatory surgery centers. For NHDS, data were collected for approximately 282,000 discharges from 480 non-Federal short-stay hospitals (95 percent response rate). For NSAS, data were collected for approximately 125,000 ambulatory surgery discharges from 488 hospitals and freestanding ambulatory surgery centers (81 percent response rate). An estimated 71.9 million procedures were performed on 39.9 million discharges from hospitals and freestanding ambulatory surgery centers during 1996: 40.4 million procedures were for inpatients, and 31.5 million were for ambulatory patients. Females had more procedures than males, and the rate of procedures increased with age in ambulatory and inpatient settings. The leading procedures for ambulatory surgery patients and inpatients combined were arteriography and angiocardiography, endoscopy of small intestine, endoscopy of large intestine, and extraction of lens.
    Vital and health statistics. Series 13, Data from the National Health Survey 12/1998;
  • E J Graves, L J Kozak
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: This report presents national estimates of the use of non-Federal short-stay hospitals in the United States during 1996. Estimates of first-listed diagnoses, all-listed diagnoses, days of care for first-listed diagnoses, and all-listed procedures are shown by sex and age of patient and geographic region of hospital. METHODS: The estimates are based on data collected through the National Hospital Discharge Survey for 1996. The survey has been conducted annually by the National Center for Health Statistics since 1965. In 1996, data were collected for approximately 282,000 discharges from 480 non-Federal short-stay hospitals. Diagnoses and procedures are presented according to their code number in the International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM).
    Vital and health statistics. Series 13, Data from the National Health Survey 10/1998;
  • L J Kozak, M F Owings
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    ABSTRACT: This report presents estimates of surgical and nonsurgical procedures performed in the United States during 1995. Data are presented by characteristics of patients, region of the country, and procedure categories for ambulatory and inpatient procedures separately and combined. Estimates in this report are based on data collected from the National Hospital Discharge Survey (NHDS) and the National Survey of Ambulatory Surgery (NSAS). NHDS provides data on hospital inpatient care, and NSAS provides data on ambulatory surgery in hospitals and in freestanding ambulatory surgery centers. For NHDS, data were collected for approximately 263,000 discharges from 466 non-Federal short-stay hospitals (92 percent response rate). For NSAS, data were collected for approximately 122,000 ambulatory surgery discharges from 489 hospitals and freestanding ambulatory surgery centers (80 percent response rate). An estimated 69.2 million procedures were performed on 38.7 million discharges from hospitals and freestanding ambulatory surgery centers during 1995: 39.8 million procedures were for inpatients, and 29.4 million were for ambulatory patients. Females had more procedures than males, and the rate of procedures increased with age in ambulatory and inpatient settings. The leading procedures for ambulatory surgery patients and inpatients combined were endoscopy of small intestine, arteriography and angiocardiography, extraction of lens, and endoscopy of large intestine.
    Vital and health statistics. Series 13, Data from the National Health Survey 03/1998;
  • R Pokras, L J Kozak, E McCarthy
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    ABSTRACT: This report presents estimates of surgical and nonsurgical procedures performed in the United States during 1994. Data are presented by characteristics of patients, region of the country, and procedure categories for ambulatory and inpatient procedures separately and combined. Estimates in this report are based on data collected from the National Hospital Discharge Survey (NHDS) and the National Survey of Ambulatory Surgery (NSAS). The NHDS provides data on hospital inpatient care, and the NSAS provides data on ambulatory surgery in hospitals and in freestanding ambulatory surgery centers. For the NHDS, data were collected for approximately 277,000 discharges from 478 non-Federal short-stay hospitals (93 percent response rate). For the NSAS, data were collected for about 118,000 ambulatory surgery discharges from 494 hospitals and freestanding ambulatory surgery centers (80 percent response rate). An estimated 68.4 million procedures were performed on 38.0 million discharges from hospitals and freestanding ambulatory surgery centers during 1994: 40.7 million procedures were for inpatients, and 27.7 million were for ambulatory patients. Females had more procedures than males did and the rate of procedures increased with age in both ambulatory and inpatient settings. The leading procedures for ambulatory surgery patients and inpatients combined were endoscopy of large intestine, arteriography and angiocardiography, endoscopy of small intestine, and extraction of lens.
    Vital and health statistics. Series 13, Data from the National Health Survey 01/1998;
  • S C Curtin, L J Kozak
    Birth 10/1997; 24(3):194-6. · 2.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The National Hospital Discharge Survey (NHDS) was used to evaluate potentially avoidable hospital conditions as an indicator of equity and efficiency in the US health care system. With the use of 1990 data from the NHDS, the National Health Interview Survey, and the census, national rates of hospitalization were calculated for avoidable conditions by age, race, median income of zip code, and insurance status. An estimated 3.1 million hospitalizations were for potentially avoidable conditions. This was 12% of all hospitalizations in 1990 (excluding psychiatric admissions, women with deliveries, and newborns). Rates of potentially avoidable hospitalizations were higher for persons living in middle- and low-income areas than for persons living in high-income areas, and were higher among Blacks than among Whites. These class and racial differences were also found among the privately insured. Differences among income and racial groups for persons aged 65 and over were not significant. Inequalities in potentially avoidable hospitalizations suggest inequity and inefficiency in the health care delivery system. Avoidable hospital conditions are a useful national indicator to monitor access to care.
    American Journal of Public Health 06/1997; 87(5):811-6. · 3.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: This report presents estimates of surgical and nonsurgical procedures done on an ambulatory basis in hospitals and freestanding ambulatory surgery centers in the United States during 1994. Data are presented by types of facilities, age, sex, geographic region, and disposition for ambulatory surgery visits. Major categories of procedures and diagnoses are shown by age, sex, and region. METHODS: The estimates are based on data collected from the national Survey of Ambulatory Surgery, conducted for the first time in 1994 by the national Center for Health Statistics. The 1994 data were abstracted from 118,000 medical records in 494 hospitals and freestanding ambulatory surgery centers.
    Advance data 04/1997;
  • M J Hall, L J Kozak
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    ABSTRACT: In 1980 and 1990, only 4-5 percent of patients in short-stay hospitals were hospitalized for more than 3 weeks. The number of discharges and days of care for these long-stay patients were lower in 1990 as compared with 1980, but they continued to use more than a quarter of all hospital days in 1990. Long-stay patients were more likely than all patients to be 65 years of age and over and have Medicare as their expected principal source of payment. For long-stay and all patients, private insurance covered smaller proportions of discharges and days of care, and Medicaid covered larger proportions in 1990 than in 1980. Long-stay patients were more likely than all patients to be discharged dead or transferred to other hospitals or nursing homes. Long-stay and all patients were more likely to be transferred at discharge in 1990 than in 1981. The Northeast Region had a larger proportion of long-stay patients than of all patients, and that proportion increased from 1980 to 1990. The proportion of long-stay discharges and days of care in the Midwest decreased during this period. In 1980 and 1990, more than 50 percent of the discharges and days of care for long-stay patients were for diseases of the circulatory system, mental disorders, neoplasms, or injury and poisoning. Despite the overall decreases in hospital use by long-stay patients, their discharges and days of care increased significantly from 1980 to 1990 for diagnoses such as septicemia, psychoses, and miscellaneous complications of surgical and medical care. Over time, decreases were seen in long-stay discharges and days of care for a variety of diagnostic categories, including malignant neoplasm of trachea, bronchus, and lung; diabetes mellitus; and fracture of the neck of the femur. Long-stay patients had a higher rate of procedures per 1,000 discharges in 1990 than in 1980, and a higher rate than all patients in both years. Approximately half of all the procedures performed on long-stay patients in 1980 and two-thirds in 1990 were miscellaneous diagnostic and therapeutic procedures, operations on the cardiovascular system, or operations on the digestive system. The rates of numerous procedures, especially diagnostic tests, increased for long-stay and all patients from 1980 to 1990.
    Advance data 04/1993;