ABSTRACT: Over-expression of penile neuronal nitric oxide synthase (PnNOS) from a plasmid ameliorates aging-related erectile dysfunction (ED), whereas over-expression of the protein inhibitor of NOS (PIN), that binds to nNOS, increases ED.
To improve this form of gene therapy for ED by comparing the electrical field response of short hairpin RNA (shRNA) for PIN with that of antisense PIN RNA.
Both shRNA and antisense RNA gene therapy vectors increased intracavernosal pressure in aged rats.
PIN small interfering RNA (siRNA), and plasmid constructs for cytomegalovirus promoter plasmid vector (pCMV-PIN), pCMV-PIN antisense RNA, pSilencer2.1-U6-PIN-shRNA; and pSilencer2.1-U6-randomer-shRNA were prepared and validated by transfection into HEK293 cells, determining the effects on PIN expression by Western blot. Plasmid constructs were then injected, followed by electroporation, into the penile corpora cavernosa of aged (20-month-old) Fisher 344 rats and, 1 month later, the erectile response was measured by intracavernosal pressure increase following electrical field stimulation (EFS) of the cavernosal nerve. PIN was estimated in penile tissue by Western blot and real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) measurements were conducted by competitive enzyme immunoassay (EIA). Immunohistofluorescence detected PIN in corporal tissue sections.
In cell culture, PIN siRNA and plasmid-expressed pU6-PIN-shRNA effectively reduced PIN expression from pCMV-PIN. pSilencer2.1-U6-PIN-shRNA corrected the impaired erectile response to EFS in aged rats and raised it above the value for young rats, more efficiently than pCMV-PIN antisense RNA. PIN mRNA expression in the penis was decreased by >70% by the shRNA but remained unaffected by the antisense RNA, whereas PIN protein expression was reduced in both cases, particularly in the dorsal nerve. PIN antisense increased cGMP concentration in treated tissue by twofold.
pSilencer2.1-U6-PIN-shRNA gene therapy was more effective than the antisense PIN mRNA in ameliorating ED in the aged rat, thereby suggesting that PIN is indeed a physiological inhibitor of nNOS and nitrergic neurotransmission in the penis.
Journal of Sexual Medicine 05/2007; 4(3):633-43. · 3.55 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Myostatin negatively regulates skeletal muscle growth. Myostatin knockout mice exhibit muscle hypertrophy and decreased interstitial fibrosis. We investigated whether a plasmid expressing a short hairpin interfering RNA (shRNA) against myostatin and transduced using electroporation would increase local skeletal muscle mass.
Short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) targeting myostatin were co-transfected with a myostatin-expressing plasmid into HEK293 cells and identified for myostatin silencing by Western blot. Corresponding shRNAs were cloned into plasmid shRNA expression vectors. Myostatin or a randomer negative control shRNA plasmid was injected and electroporated into the tibialis anterior or its contralateral muscle, respectively, of nine rats that were sacrificed after 2 weeks. Six other rats received a beta-galactosidase reporter plasmid and were sacrificed at 1, 2, and 4 weeks. Uptake of plasmid was examined by beta-galactosidase expression, whereas myostatin expression was determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Western blotting. Muscle fiber size was determined by histochemistry. Satellite cell proliferation was determined by PAX7 immunohistochemistry. Myosin heavy chain type II (MHCII) expression was determined by Western blot.
beta-Galactosidase reporter plasmid was expressed at 1 and 2 weeks but diminished by 4 weeks in tibialis anterior skeletal muscle. Myostatin shRNA reduced myostatin mRNA and protein expression by 27 and 48%, respectively. Tibialis anterior weight, fiber size, and MHCII increased by 10, 34, and 38%, respectively. Satellite cell number was increased by over 2-fold.
This is the first demonstration that myostatin shRNA gene transfer is a potential strategy to increase muscle mass.
The Journal of Gene Medicine 10/2006; 8(9):1171-81. · 2.48 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Tissue ossification in Peyronie disease (commonly known as Peyronie's disease [PD]), a localized fibrotic lesion within the tunica albuginea (TA) of the penis, may result from osteogenic differentiation of fibroblasts, myofibroblasts, and/or adult stem cells in the TA, and may be triggered by chronic inflammation, oxidative stress, and profibrotic factors like transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFB1). In this study, we have investigated whether cultures of cells from normal TA and PD plaques undergo osteogenesis, express markers for stem cells, and originate other cell lineages via processes modulated by TGFB1. We found that TA and PD cells in osteogenic medium (OM) expressed osteogenic markers, alkaline phosphatase, and osteopontin and underwent calcification. PD cells, but not TA cells, formed foci in soft agar that were positive for alkaline phosphatase and calcification and expressed the mRNAs for osteoblast-specific factors pleiotrophin and periostin and bone morphogenic protein 2. Both cultures expressed stem cell marker CD34 antigen but not protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type c. TA and PD cells expressed smooth-muscle cell markers smoothelin and transgelin. None of the cultures underwent adipogenesis in adipogenic medium. Incubation with TGFB1 increased osteogenesis and myofibroblast differentiation and reduced CD34 antigen expression in both cultures. TA and PD cells modulated the differentiation of the multipotent C3H 10T(1/2) cells in dual cultures, into osteoblasts and myofibroblasts. In conclusion, both TA and PD cultures contain cells, presumably stem cells, that undergo osteogenic and myofibroblast differentiation, and may induce these processes by paracrine interactions. This may explain progression of fibrosis in the PD plaque and its eventual calcification.
Biology of Reproduction 01/2006; 73(6):1199-210. · 4.01 Impact Factor