L Kemppainen

University of Oulu, Oulu, Oulu, Finland

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Publications (7)32.76 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Subtle motor, emotional, cognitive and behavioural abnormalities are often present in apparently healthy individuals who later develop schizophrenia, suggesting that some aspects of causation are established before overt psychosis. To outline the development of schizophrenia. We drew on evidence from The Northern Finland 1966 Birth Cohort supplemented by selected findings from other relevant literature. The main known risk factors in development of schizophrenia are genetic causes, pregnancy and delivery complications, slow neuromotor development, and deviant cognitive and academic performance. However, their effect size and predictive power are small. No powerful risk factor, premorbid sign or risk indicator has been identified that is useful for the prediction of schizophrenia in the general population.
    The British journal of psychiatry. Supplement 09/2005; 48:s4-7.
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    ABSTRACT: Females still commit fewer criminal offenses than males, but the percentage of female offending has been increasing during the past few decades. Thus there is a need for original studies into the perinatal contribution to the etiology of female offending. A large, prospectively collected birth cohort database of female members (N = 5,056) was available. Information on perinatal biological and psychosocial risks as well as data from the National Crime Registers up to 32 years of age were collected and analyzed by logistic regression and a chi2 automatic interaction detection (CHAID) analysis. The absence of the father during childhood was the strongest risk factor in predicting female criminality (odds ratio 2.5; 95% confidence interval 1.4-4.3). Furthermore, in the families in which the father was present, maternal smoking during pregnancy together with being born unwanted correlated with an increased prevalence of criminal offending significantly up to 7.2%. CHAID analysis proved to be a useful statistical method in predicting female adult criminality after preceding perinatal risks. It revealed that the risk factors were mainly familial, the paternal factor being the most important one in determining the probability of daughters committing criminal offenses.
    Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry 08/2002; 41(7):854-9. · 6.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Northern Finland 1966 Birth Cohort was studied in order to investigate the association between birth order and schizophrenia. Four categories of birth order status (first-born, last-born, only child and other status) were formed and linked to data on psychiatric morbidity. Effects were adjusted for wantedness of pregnancy, perinatal complications, maternal age at delivery, family type and number of siblings. The risk for schizophrenia was elevated among male first-borns (ratio 1.5; 95% CI 1.0-2.2) and female last-borns (ratio 1.3; 95% CI 0.9-1.9). The risk was lower than expected among male last-borns (ratio 0.7; 95% CI 0.5-0.9) and females belonging to other status (ratio 0.6; 95% CI 0.3-0.9). These results suggest that specific birth order status is an independent risk factor for schizophrenia. Theoretical explanations may arise from biological factors unidentified here and/or psychological stressors linked with these positions.
    Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 09/2001; 104(2):148-52. · 4.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Serious defects in social skills acquired during childhood may be associated with aggressive behavior in later life. The authors studied whether being an only child was associated with criminality in adulthood and, secondly, if parental factors increased the putative risk. The authors used an unselected, prospectively collected large birth cohort. Data on crimes were linked with being an only child as well as with perinatal risk and maternal and paternal psychological risk factors among male subjects. The risk for violent crimes later in life was elevated among the only children. If perinatal or parental risks were combined with being an only child, the odds ratios for violent offending increased four-fold to eight-fold. A corresponding risk increase between being an only child and nonviolent offending was not detected. These results support the hypothesis that growing up as an only child is associated with violent criminality among male subjects.
    American Journal of Psychiatry 07/2001; 158(6):960-2. · 14.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A child born to a grand multiparous (GMP) mother (i.e. a mother who has undergone six or more deliveries) is at increased risk of perinatal complications, but it is not known whether or not GMP status is associated with child's adulthood mental disorders. The data were obtained from the unselected, general population Northern Finland 1966 Birth Cohort (n = 11,017). The cohort members (children) were followed up prospectively to the age of 28 years. Using the National Hospital Discharge Register, a total of 89 DSM-III-R schizophrenia cases were identified, as well as 55 other psychoses, 87 personality disorders, 36 cases of alcoholism, 53 depressive disorders, and 67 anxiety and other non-psychotic disorders. The association between the mother's grand multiparity and the offspring's adult hospital-treated psychiatric morbidity was analysed using a continuation ratio model, which is a modification of logistic regression. Odds ratios were adjusted for social class, maternal antenatal depression, and wantedness of pregnancy. A total of 1320 mothers (12%) were GMPs. Maternal GMP status was not associated with offspring's schizophrenia, anxiety or other non-psychotic disorders. The risk of other psychoses (OR 2.3; 95% CI 1.2-4.7), alcoholism (OR 2.0; 95% CI 0.8-4.7) and depressive disorder (OR 2.2; 95% CI 1.0-4.5) was elevated among offspring of GMP mothers. It is possible that the mother's GMP status and the large family size associated with this are causal factors in the development of other psychoses than schizophrenia, alcoholism and depression among adult offspring.
    Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology 04/2000; 35(3):104-8. · 2.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Subtle motor, emotional, cognitive and behavioral abnormalities are often present in apparently healthy children and adolescents who later develop schizophrenia. This suggests that some aspects of causation are established long before psychosis is manifest. We aim to develop a descriptive model of the factors contributing to the development of schizophrenia. Our main focus is on genetic factors, pregnancy and delivery complications, early development and scholastic performance. This is done by reviewing the Northern Finland 1966 Birth Cohort, its scientific activities (publications and work in progress) and selected literature.
    European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience 02/2000; 250(6):311-9. · 3.36 Impact Factor
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