[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The beta(2)-adrenoceptor agonist (beta(2)-agonist), formoterol, has been shown to cause muscle hypertrophy in rats even when administered at the micromolar dose of 25 micro g/kg/day. We investigated whether a similar low dose of formoterol could improve muscle function in the dystrophic mdx mouse. Ten-week-old male mdx and wild-type (C57BL/10) mice were administered formoterol (25 micro g/kg/day, i.p.) for 4 weeks. Formoterol treatment increased extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and soleus muscle mass, increased median muscle fibre size in diaphragm, EDL, and soleus muscles, and increased maximum force producing capacity in skeletal muscles of both wild-type and mdx mice. In contrast to other studies where beta(2)-agonists have been administered to mice and rats, generally at higher doses, low dose formoterol treatment did not increase the fatiguability of EDL, soleus or diaphragm muscles. Although others have found formoterol can decrease ubiquitin mRNA and proteasome activity when administered to tumour bearing rats at high doses (2mg/kg/day), in the present study low dose formoterol treatment did not alter ubiquitin or the E1 and E3 ubiquitin ligases in diaphragm muscles of wild-type or mdx mice, but it did reduce the level of ubiquitinated proteins in diaphragm of wild-type mice. The findings indicate that formoterol has considerably more powerful anabolic effects on skeletal muscle than older generation beta(2)-agonists (like clenbuterol and albuterol), and has considerable therapeutic potential for muscular dystrophies and other neuromuscular disorders where muscle wasting is indicated.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Androgens promote anabolism in skeletal muscle; however, effects on subsequent muscle function are less well defined because of a lack of reliable experimental models. We established a rigorous model of androgen withdrawal and administration in male mice and assessed androgen regulation of muscle mass, structure, and function. Adult C57Bl/6J male mice were orchidectomized (Orx) or sham-operated (Sham) and received 10 wk of continuous testosterone (T) or control treatment (C) via intraperitoneal implants. Mass, fiber cross-sectional area (CSA), and in vitro contractile function were assessed for fast-twitch extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and slow-twitch soleus (SOL) muscles. After 10 wk, Orx+C mice had reduced body weight gain (P < 0.05), seminal vesicle mass (P < 0.01), and levator ani muscle mass (P < 0.001) compared with Sham+C mice, and these effects were prevented with testosterone treatment. Orx+T mice had greater EDL (P < 0.01) and SOL (P < 0.01) muscle mass compared with Orx+C mice; however, median fiber CSA was not significantly altered in these muscles. EDL and SOL muscle force was greater in Sham+T compared with Orx+C mice (P < 0.05) in proportion to muscle mass. Unexpectedly, Orx+T mice had increased fatigue resistance of SOL muscle compared with Orx+C mice (P < 0.001). We used a rigorous model of androgen withdrawal and administration in male mice to demonstrate an essential role of androgens in the maintenance of muscle mass and force. In addition, we showed that testosterone treatment increases resistance to fatigue of slow- but not fast-twitch muscle.
AJP Endocrinology and Metabolism 10/2006; 291(3):E506-16. · 4.51 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Interleukin (IL)-15, a cytokine expressed in skeletal muscle, has been shown to have muscle anabolic effects in vitro and to slow muscle wasting in rats with cancer cachexia. Whether IL-15 has therapeutic potential for diseases such as Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is unknown. We examined whether IL-15 administration could ameliorate the dystrophic pathology in the diaphragm muscle of the mdx mouse, an animal model for DMD. Four weeks of IL-15 treatment improved diaphragm strength, a highly significant finding because respiratory function is a mortality predictor in DMD. Enhanced diaphragm function was associated with increased muscle fiber cross-sectional area and decreased collagen infiltration. IL-15 administration was not associated with changes in T-cell populations or alterations in specific components of the ubiquitin proteasome pathway. To determine the effects of IL-15 on myofiber regeneration, muscles of IL-15-treated and untreated wild-type mice were injured myotoxically, and their functional recovery was assessed. IL-15 had a mild anabolic effect, increasing fiber cross-sectional area after 2 and 6 days but not after 10 days. Our findings demonstrate that IL-15 administration improves the pathophysiology of dystrophic muscle and highlight a possible therapeutic role for IL-15 in the treatment of neuromuscular disorders especially in which muscle wasting is indicated.
American Journal Of Pathology 05/2005; 166(4):1131-41. · 4.52 Impact Factor