[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It is common knowledge that severe blood loss and traumatic injury can lead to a cascade of detrimental signaling events often resulting in mortality. These signaling events can also lead to sepsis and/or multiple organ dysfunction (MOD). It is critical then to investigate the causes of suppressed immune function and detrimental signaling cascades in order to develop more effective ways to help patients who suffer from traumatic injuries. This fixed pressure Hemorrhagic Shock (HS) procedure, although technically challenging, is an excellent resource for investigation of these pathophysiologic conditions. Advances in the assessment of biological systems, i.e. Systems Biology have enabled the scientific community to further understand complex physiologic networks and cellular communication patterns. (14) Hemorrhagic Shock has proven to be a vital tool for unveiling these cellular communication patterns as they relate to immune function. This procedure can be mastered! This procedure can also be used as either a fixed volume or fixed pressure approach. We adapted this technique in the murine model to enhance research in innate and adaptive immune function. Due to their small size HS in mice presents unique challenges. However due to the many available mouse strains, this species represents an unparalleled resource for the study of the biologic responses. The HS model is an important model for studying cellular communication patterns and the responses of systems such as hormonal and inflammatory mediator systems, and danger signals, i.e. DAMP and PAMP upregulation as it elicits distinct responses that differ from other forms of shock. The development of transgenic murine strains and the induction of biologic agents to inhibit specific signaling have presented valuable opportunities to further elucidate our understanding of the up and down regulation of signal transduction after severe blood loss, i.e. HS and trauma. There are numerous resuscitation methods (R) in association with HS and trauma. A fixed volume resuscitation method of solely lactated ringer solution (LR), equal to three times the shed blood volume, is used in this model to study endogenous mechanisms such as remote organ injury and systemic inflammation. This method of resuscitation is proven to be effective in evaluating the effects of HS and trauma.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: IL-10 is an anti-inflammatory cytokine that suppresses NO synthase (NOS) and production of NO; its lack may promote NO production and alterations in cytokines modulated by NO with allergic airway inflammation (AI), such as IL-18 and IL-4. Therefore, we induced AI in IL-10 knockout ((-/-)) and IL-10-sufficient C57BL/6 (C57) mice with inhaled OVA and measured airway NO production, as exhaled NO (E(NO)) and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid nitrite levels. E(NO) and nitrite levels were elevated significantly in naive IL-10(-/-) mice as compared with C57 mice. With AI, E(NO) and nitrite levels increased in C57 mice and decreased in IL-10(-/-) mice. IL-18 production fell with both AI and addition of S-nitroso-N-acetyl-d,l-penicillamine (a NO donor) but was not significantly increased by chemical NOS inhibition by l-N(5)-(1-iminoethyl)-ornithine. IL-4 AI was increased significantly (up to 10-fold greater) in the absence of IL-10 but was reduced significantly with chemical inhibition of NOS. Airway responsiveness was lower in IL-10(-/-) mice and was associated with alteration in production of NO and IL-4. Thus, IL-4 production was increased, and likely decreased NO production, in a way not predicted by the absence of IL-10. Inhibition of IL-4 production, with inhibition of NOS in the absence of IL-10, demonstrated the importance of a NO and IL-4 feedback mechanism regulating this interaction.
The Journal of Immunology 08/2005; 175(2):1206-13. · 5.52 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Carbon monoxide (CO) in expired gas has been shown to be elevated with asthma; however, its function is not known, and there is some potential that it may serve a bronchoprotective role to decrease airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR). Thus the ability of CO to reverse methacholine (MCh)-induced bronchoconstriction was evaluated in C57BL/6 (C57) and A/J mice with and without airway inflammation produced by ovalbumin (OVA). Acutely administered CO (1% in air, 10 min) reduced MCh-driven increases in lung resistance in OVA-challenged C57 mice by an average of 50% (from 14.5 to 7.1 cmH2O.ml-1.s-1), whereas no effect was observed in naïve C57 mice or OVA-challenged C57 mice inhaling air alone. Acutely inhaled CO (500 ppm = 0.05%, for 10 min) reduced MCh-induced airway reactivity (AR) by 20-60% in airway hyperresponsive naïve A/J mice, whereas repeated 10-min administrations of 500 ppm CO over a 5-day period decreased AR by 50%. Repeated administration of low-dose CO [250 (0.025%) and (0.05%) 500 ppm, 1 h/day, 5 days] to A/J mice with airway inflammation likewise resulted in a drop of AR by 50%, compared with those not receiving CO. Inhibition of guanylyl cyclase/guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphothioate (cGMP) using 1H-[1,2,4] oxydiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one or a competitive inhibitor, Rp diastereomers of 8-bromo-cGMP, resulted in inhibition of the effect of CO on AHR, suggesting that the effects of CO were mediated through this mechanism. These results indicate that low-dose CO can effectively reverse AHR in the presence and absence of airway inflammation in mice and suggest a potential role for CO in the modulation of AHR.