L Karr

University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, United States

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Publications (3)25.25 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: CD4+ T cells from alpha beta-T-cell receptor transgenic mice were analyzed for coexpression of cytokine mRNAs during phenotype development using a double-label in situ hybridization technique. T cells that produced cytokines in the primary response were a fraction of the activated population, and only a minority of the cytokine-positive cells coexpressed two cytokines. In secondary responses, frequencies of double-positive cells increased, although they remained a minority of the total. Of the cytokine pairs examined, interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-5 were the most frequently coexpressed. IL-4 and interferon gamma showed the greatest tendency toward segregation of expression, being rarely coexpressed after the primary stimulation. These data indicate that there is significant heterogeneity of cytokine gene expression by individual CD4+ T cells during early antigenic responses. Coexpression of any pairs of cytokines, much less Th1 and Th2 cytokines, is generally the exception. The Th0 phenotype is a population phenotype rather than an individual cell phenotype.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 09/1995; 92(16):7565-9. · 9.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A sensitive in situ hybridization procedure using both digoxigenin and 35S-labeled riboprobes is described that allows detection of single T cells expressing cytokine mRNA species in both single and double label formats. Modifications to existing procedures have been developed that allow in situ hybridization to be performed in either fresh frozen tissue sections or cytocentrifuge preparations of cultured cells. For single label studies, the digoxigenin labeling technique is equivalent to 35S labeling for sensitivity of detection and is superior with respect to precise localization and ease of use. A procedure to detect two cytokine mRNA species in individual cells can be performed using one digoxigenin-labeled riboprobe and one 35S-riboprobe, with equivalent sensitivity between the two labels and no non-specific mixing of the two signals. Since production of many T cell cytokines are controlled by transcriptional mechanisms, the use of in situ hybridization will be useful to investigate the biology of T cell activation, patterns of cytokine phenotype development, and histological localization of cytokine expressing cells in inflammatory lesions. Initial studies using this method to examine cytokine expression by a panel of T cell clones reveals that individual cytokine genes are not necessarily expressed in coordination in individual cells and relatively few individual cells in a Th0 clone express Th1-like and Th2-like cytokines simultaneously.
    Journal of Immunological Methods 06/1995; 182(1):93-106. · 2.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: T helper type 0 (Th0), Th1, and Th2 CD4+ T cell clones derived from a T cell receptor alpha/beta (TCR-alpha/beta) transgenic mouse were activated by antigen presented on "artificial" antigen-presenting cells that expressed or lacked the costimulatory molecule B7-1, and were analyzed for single cell cytokine mRNA expression by in situ hybridization. There was significant heterogeneity in the frequency of T cells that expressed individual cytokine mRNAs within each clonal population, suggesting that transcriptional control of each of the cytokine genes was not coordinate within an individual cell. The majority of antigen-stimulated Th1 cells expressed mRNA for interferon gamma (IFN-gamma), but far fewer cells in the same population expressed interleukin 2 (IL-2). Similarly, the frequency of IL-4-expressing cells was greater than that of IL-5- or IL-10-expressing cells in the same Th2 population, but the difference in expression frequencies was more variable between clones. The expression frequencies of each of the cytokines was quite heterogeneous in the antigen-activated Th0 population. The principal effect of increased antigen on the activation of individual cytokine genes in each of the clonal populations was to increase recruitment of mRNA-positive cells, with little or no effect on the level of cytokine mRNA expression in individual positive cells. The effects of B7 costimulation were variable depending on the cytokine gene analyzed. B7 costimulation markedly increased the frequency and the level of IL-2 mRNA expression in individual positive cells in the Th1 and Th0 populations, with less effect on the recruitment and single cell expression level of IFN-gamma. IL-4 frequencies were modestly increased by B7 costimulation of the Th2 clones, but there was no detectable increase in single cell IL-4 expression level. The observed patterns of cytokine mRNA expression favor a model of T cell activation in which all-or-none, rather than graded, responses of cytokine genes are dominant.
    Journal of Experimental Medicine 11/1994; 180(4):1251-62. · 13.21 Impact Factor