[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The apparent ileal digestibility coefficients of amino acids in 107 samples representing 22 food ingredients were determined using 6-week-old broiler chickens. The ingredients assayed included five cereals (barley, maize, sorghum, triticale and wheat), two cereal by-products (rice polishings and wheat middlings), four oilseed meals (canola, cottonseed, soya-bean and sunflower meals), full-fat canola, maize gluten meal, four grain legumes (chickpeas, faba beans, field peas and lupins) and five animal protein sources (blood, feather, fish, meat and meat and bone meals). The mean ileal digestibility coefficients of amino acids in wheat and maize were higher than those in sorghum, triticale and barley. However, variations observed in individual amino acid digestibilities among samples within cereal type were greater than those determined between cereals. Threonine and lysine were the least digestible indispensable amino acids in the five cereals evaluated. The most digestible indispensable amino acid was phenylalanine in wheat and, leucine in maize and sorghum. In the case of the wheat middlings and rice polishings, threonine was the least digestible indispensable amino acid and arginine was the best digested.In the oilseed meals assayed, amino acid digestibility was highest for soya-bean and sunflower meals, intermediate for canola meal and lowest for cottonseed meal. Ileal digestibility coefficients of amino acids in lupins were found to be slightly lower than those in soya-bean meal. The amino acid digestibilities of field peas, faba beans and chickpeas were considerably lower than those of lupins. Digestibility of arginine was the highest and that of threonine was the lowest of the indispensable amino acids in oilseed meals and grain legumes, except in cottonseed meal. Lysine was the least digestible amino acid in cottonseed meal.In the animal protein sources assayed, digestibility coefficients of amino acids in blood meal were high, intermediate in fish meal, and low in meat meal, meat and bone meal and feather meal. Variation in amino acid digestibility coefficients determined for blood meal samples was small. However, wide variations in amino acid digestibilities were observed for other animal protein sources, highlighting significant batch-to-batch differences. In particular, marked variations were determined for meat meal and meat and bone meal samples. Cystine was the least digested amino acid in animal protein meals, with the exception of blood meal in which isoleucine had the lowest digestibility. The limitations of using apparent digestibility values in diet formulations and the concept of the standardized digestibility system to overcome these limitations are discussed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to compare the protein-free diet, guanidinated casein (GuC) and enzyme hydrolysed casein (EHC) methods for the quantification of endogenous amino acid (AA) flow in the avian ileum. Growing broiler chickens (5 weeks old) were used. All three assay diets were based on dextrose, and in the GuC and EHC diets GuC or EHC were the sole source of N. Endogenous AA flows determined with the use of protein-free diet were considerably lower (P<0.05) than those determined by the GuC and EHC methods. The total endogenous AA flows determined by the GuC and EHC methods were almost 3-fold greater (P<0.05) than those determined by the protein-free diet. The endogenous AA values obtained from GuC and EHC methods were similar (P>0.05), except for the flow of arginine, which was lower (P<0.05) in the EHC method. Glutamic acid, aspartic acid, threonine and glycine were the predominant endogenous AA present in digesta from the distal ileum. The contents of methionine, histidine and cystine were lower compared with other AA. The method of determination had no effect on the AA composition of endogenous protein, except for threonine, glutamic acid, lysine, arginine and cystine. The concentrations of threonine and arginine were lower (P<0.05) and that of lysine was higher (P<0.05) with the EHC method compared with the other two methods. The concentration of glutamic acid was greater (P<0.05) and that of cystine was lower (P<0.05) in the EHC and GuC methods compared with the protein-free diet method. The results showed that the ileal endogenous flows of N and AA are markedly enhanced by the presence of protein and peptides, above those determined following feeding of a protein-free diet. It is concluded that the use of EHC and GuC methods enables the measurement of ileal endogenous losses in chickens under normal physiological conditions.
British Journal Of Nutrition 08/2004; 92(2):217-23. DOI:10.1079/BJN20041202 · 3.45 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 1. The apparent ileal and excreta digestibilities of amino acids in 15 samples representing 12 food ingredients were determined using 5-week-old male broiler chickens. The ingredients included 3 samples of cereals (wheat, maize and sorghum), 6 samples of plant protein meals (soyabean meal, cottonseed meal, canola meal and sunflower meal) and 6 samples of animal protein meals (meat meal, meat-and-bone meal, feather meal and fish meal). 2. The test ingredients were incorporated as the sole source of dietary protein in assay diets. Each diet was offered ad libitum to 3 pens (4 birds/pen) from d 35 to d 42 post-hatching. Total collection of excreta was carried out during the last 4 d. All birds were killed on d 42 and the contents of the lower half of the ileum were collected. Apparent ileal and excreta amino acid digestibilities were calculated using acid-insoluble ash as the indigestible marker. 3. The influence of site of measurement was found to vary among food ingredients, among samples within an ingredient and among different amino acids within an ingredient. Ileal amino acid digestibility values were similar in some ingredients, but significantly lower or higher in others than the corresponding excreta values. 4. Average ileal and excreta amino acid digestibilities in sorghum and maize were similar, but significant differences were observed for individual amino acids. In contrast, ileal amino acid digestibility values were higher than the corresponding excreta digestibility values in wheat. 5. The average ileal and excreta digestibilites of amino acids in the 3 soyabean meal samples were similar although small, but significant differences were noted for individual amino acids. Site of measurement had no effect on the digestibility of amino acids in canola meal. Digestibilities of valine, isoleucine, phenylalanine, histidine, glutamic acid, alanine and tyrosine in sunflower meal and those of valine, methionine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, glutamic acid and alanine in cottonseed meal were lower by excreta analysis. 6. Digestibilities in animal protein meals, with the exception of blood meal and fish meal, were consistently higher by excreta analysis. Ileal-excreta differences in individual amino acid digestibilities were more evident in feather meal, meat meal and meat-and-bone meal. 7. Threonine and valine were the indispensable amino acids that were more frequently influenced by the site of measurement. Of the dispensable amino acids, aspartic acid, serine, glutamic acid and alanine were the most affected. 8. Differences determined between ileal and excreta digestibilities in the present study clearly demonstrate that amino acid metabolism by hindgut microflora in chickens may be substantial and that digestibilities measured in the terminal ileum are more accurate measures of amino acid availability than those measured in the excreta.
British Poultry Science 06/1999; 40(2):266-74. DOI:10.1080/00071669987692 · 0.94 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A commercial xylanase product was assessed for its effects on the performance of, and apparent metabolisable energy (AME) and ileal amino acid digestibility in, 3 commercial broiler strains (Strain A, B, and C) fed on a diet containing wheat (407 g/kg) and oats (78 g/kg). Exogenous xylanase improved weight gains (P = 0.07) and feed/gain (P < 0.04) of broilers, irrespective of genotype. Performance parameters significantly differed among the broiler strains. Strains A and C consumed more (P < 0.04) feed, and grew faster (P < 0.01) and more efficiently (P = 0.07) than Strain B. Enzyme supplementation resulted in 2.8% improvement (P < 0.05) in the AME of the wheat-based diet. The AME tended to be higher (P = 0.09) with Strain A (13.46 MJ/kg dry matter) and Strain C (13.57 MJ/kg dry matter) than with Strain B (13.10 MJ/kg dry matter). The apparent ileal digestibility of all amino acids was 1–2 percentage units higher in birds fed on the enzyme-supplemented diet than in those fed on the unsupplemented diet (controls), but the differences were significant (P < 0.05) only for threonine, methionine, isoleucine, arginine, aspartic acid, serine, and glutamic acid. Highly significant (P < 0.001) strain effects were observed for apparent ileal digestibility of all amino acids, with Strain A recording the highest (0.807–0.945) and Strain B the lowest (0.710–0.912). Mean ileal digestibility coefficients of the 15 amino acids in wheat-based diets for Strains A, B, and C were 0.858, 0.791, and 0.828, respectively. Ileal digesta viscosity was low, and was not affected by dietary enzyme, suggesting that other factors were responsible for the observed improvements in bird performance.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The influence of two commercial xylanase preparations on the apparent metabolisable energy (AME) and, ileal and excreta amino acid digestibilities in wheat for broilers was investigated. The following three dietary treatments were tested: a basal diet containing 918gkg−1 wheat, basal diet plus enzyme 1 and basal diet plus enzyme 2. Each diet was offered ad libitum to four pens (four birds/pen) from day 35 to day 42 post-hatching. Total collection of excreta was carried out during the last 4 days. All birds were euthanatised on day 42 and the contents of the lower half of the ileum were collected. Apparent ileal and excreta amino acid digestibilities were calculated using acid-insoluble ash as the indigestible marker. The AME values of wheat were markedly improved by exogenous enzymes. Addition of enzymes 1 and 2 improved the AME values by 12.6% and 18.6%, respectively. Supplementation of enzymes resulted in significant (p
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: High pH employed during the guanidination process (conversion of lysine residues to homoarginine) and its possible effects on racemization of amino acid residues to D-forms and on amino acid digestibility are concerns often raised with the use of guanidinated proteins to estimate endogenous amino acid losses in monogastric animals. The objective of the present study was to investigate the influence of guanidination on apparent ileal amino acid digestibility of casein, soybean meal, cottonseed meal, and canola meal for broiler chickens. Apparent ileal digestibility of amino acids in guanidinated and unreacted proteins, with few exceptions, were found to be remarkably similar. These results suggest that the guanidination process has no influence on the susceptibility of proteins to proteolysis and that racemization is not a practical problem when the proteins are guanidinated at low temperatures.