L Attias

Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Roma, Latium, Italy

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Publications (10)14.2 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The artificial-turf granulates made from recycled rubber waste are of health concern due the possible exposure of users to dangerous substances present in the rubber, and especially to PAHs. In this work, we determined the contents of PAHs, metals, non-dioxin-like PCBs (NDL-PCBs), PCDDs and PCDFs in granulates, and PAH concentrations in air during the use of the field. The purposes were to identify some potential chemical risks and to roughly assess the risk associated with inhalation exposure to PAHs. Rubber granulates were collected from 13 Italian fields and analysed for 25 metals and nine PAHs. One further granulate was analysed for NDL-PCBs, PCDDs, PCDFs and 13 PAHs. Air samples were collected on filter at two fields, using respectively a high volume static sampler close to the athletes and personal samplers worn by the athletes, and at background locations outside the fields. In the absence of specific quality standards, we evaluated the measured contents with respect to the Italian standards for soils to be reclaimed as green areas. Zn concentrations (1 to 19 g/kg) and BaP concentrations (0.02 to 11 mg/kg) in granulates largely exceeded the pertinent standards, up to two orders of magnitude. No association between the origin of the recycled rubber and the contents of PAHs and metals was observed. The sums of NDL-PCBs and WHO-TE PCDDs+PCDFs were, respectively, 0.18 and 0.67×10(-5) mg/kg. The increased BaP concentrations in air, due to the use of the field, varied approximately from <0.01 to 0.4 ng/m(3), the latter referring to worst-case conditions as to the release of particle-bound PAHs. Based on the 0.4 ng/m(3) concentration, an excess lifetime cancer risk of 1×10(-6) was calculated for an intense 30-year activity.
    Science of The Total Environment 09/2011; 409(23):4950-7. · 3.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Chemical carcinogens represent a variety of (classes of) substances that are present in different media and compartments, which are determined by their sources, applications and use. With respect to dose-response assessment, within the context of quantitative risk assessment (QRA), these carcinogens are evaluated by various bodies, either on a national or international basis or both. For those chemicals present in air and water, an international harmonization of this risk evaluation is strived for by the Quality Guidelines of the World Health Organization (WHO, 1987, 1993). The same holds for food additives, contaminants, and pesticides, allowable levels of which are based on ADIs (allowable daily intakes) determined by the FAO/WHO committees JECFA and JMPR, respectively.
    07/2011: pages 1-20;
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    ABSTRACT: In 1997 the Italian monitoring programme for pesticide residues in food comprised 7951 samples of 152 different foods for which a total of 275 pesticides were analysed. For 90 pesticides, the National Estimated Daily Intakes (NEDIs) were calculated by using the 90th percentile value and the food consumption data for the general Italian population. The calculated NEDIs were found to represent only a small portion of the respective Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI).
    Food Additives and Contaminants 11/2001; 18(10):932-6. · 2.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The benchmark dose (BD) approach has been applied to foetal data from four gavage segment II studies (rat studies 1 and 2, rabbit study, hamster study) on the teratogenic benzimidazole carbendazim. Nineteen parameters were assessed using the log-normal model as a practical tool to derive BDs; good model fitting was observed for all except two parameters. Data were evaluated on a 'per-implant/foetus' basis; BDs were derived from response rate increases of 1, 5, and 10%. The values were compared to the lowest-observed-adverse-effect levels (LOAELs) and no-observed-adverse effect levels (NOAELs) obtained by Fisher's exact test on a 'per-implant/foetus' basis. Frank effects observed only at the top dose and/or small sample size tended to increase the 95% confidence limits and this influenced the determination of BD. Generally, the BD approach provided slightly more conservative estimates than NOAEL; overall, BD01 and BD05 were similar to NOAEL, or even lower for several parameters. The LOAEL in most cases was similar to BD10. Reference doses obtained by dividing BD01 by a 10 or 100 uncertainty factor, corresponded to residual risks of 10(-5) or below. For two critical parameters (hydrocephalus in rat study 1 and resorption rate in the rabbit study) a NOAEL could not be found, whereas a BD was always determined.
    Food and Chemical Toxicology 02/1998; 36(1):37-45. · 2.61 Impact Factor
  • G A Zapponi, L Attias, I Marcello
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    ABSTRACT: The comparative examination of experimental and epidemiological data, together with risk evaluations concerning coke-oven, diesel, and gasoline motor emissions, as well as specific PAH fractions and single PAHs, indicates that, at least under risk additivity hypothesis, benzo(a)pyrene (B(a) may account for only a relatively small amount of the whole carcinogenic potential of PAH mixtures. This finding emerges from the comparison of risk evaluations of coke-oven and diesel emissions (based on epidemiological and/or experimental data) with risk evaluations of B(a)P as a single substance (based on carcinogenic bioassay data), as well as from the results of experimental studies evaluating the carcinogenic potency of motor exhaust condensates, of specific condensate fractions (particularly, the 4-7 ring PAH fraction), and of B(a)P. These data indicate that B(a)P might account for a percentage of the whole mixture carcinogenic response, at least in the hypothesis of an additive effect of PAHs. However, the overall carcinogenic response and risk still appear at least approximately related to the B(a)P concentration in the examined PAH mixtures. Finally, recent findings on PAH relative potencies (compared with B(a)P potency) indicate that several PAH present in mixtures commonly detected in occupational and in the general environment are characterized by a carcinogenic potency comparable with or even higher than that of B(a)P. This confirms the above hypothesis with respect to the significant, but minor role, of B(a)P. This relatively coherent picture appears to confirm that the reference to B(a)P as a complex mixture index may still represent a reasonable solution. However, the selection of a few other indicators from among the PAH whose relative concentrations and relative carcinogenic potencies are higher might improve the analysis.
    Journal of Environmental Pathology Toxicology and Oncology 02/1997; 16(2-3):209-14. · 0.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In our study, we attempted to jointly consider THM concentration data collected from drinking waters and carcinogenic risk assessment derived from mathematical models commonly used in this field (multi-stage models for laboratory animal experimentation data, and 'unit risk' derived from the relative risk in the case of epidemiological data). In order to estimate the risks related to joint exposure to different THMs, in this study the risk additivity hypothesis is taken into account. Based on animal data for the various tumors, carcinogenic risk estimates for different THM combinations vary from 2.7 x 10(-7) to 4.6 x 10(-6) per micrograms/l in relation to different carcinogenic substances published in the literature or specifically calculated in this study. The carcinogenic risk parameters derived from experimental studies and from epidemiological data were substantially consistent. Our study uses also as an example some data on concentration levels of THMs for drinking water supplies in Sardinia. The area mean THM concentration values for each supply varied, for ground waters, from 8.1 to 13.6 micrograms/l and, for surface waters, from 52.8 to 168 micrograms/l. For the 1976-1989 period, bladder cancer standardized mortality rates in the water distribution system areas where the THMs were measured indicate values similar, but generally lower, than the national ones, except in the province of Cagliari where the values were not significantly different. The risk estimates derived from animal studies are of the same order of magnitude as the epidemiological data in literature.
    Science of The Total Environment 11/1995; 171(1-3):61-8. · 3.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In the spring of 1991, there was a shipwreck of the oil tanker "Haven" off the Ligurian coast of Italy. This resulted in the spillage of a very large amount of crude oil, some of which was burned off by fire. The accident caused several serious problems (sea and air pollution, damage to the marine fauna, risk of human exposure, etc.). In this context, an assessment was carried out at the Istituto Superior di Sanità with the aim of determining any possible risks to humans which might derive from bathing activities during the following summer season. The whole evaluation carried out after the accident demonstrated that the impacts induced were not serious enough to require bathing restrictions in the coastal areas involved. Assuming a benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) concentration in sea water of 1 microgram/m3 cancer risk is in the order of 10(-8) and in the case of 10-kg child, a 10(-6) risk level correspond to about 0.18 microgram/l of BaP in sea water.
    Central European journal of public health 09/1995; 3(3):142-5. · 0.80 Impact Factor
  • Epidemiologia e prevenzione 29(5-6 Suppl):22-6. · 1.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This paper addresses several aspects of dose response analysis which are relevant to risk assessment for drinking water contamination. We described the statistical distribution of carcinogenic potencies for a set of drinking water contaminants and discuss the statistical relationships between carcinogenic potencies and other toxicity parameters. The poten­ tial benefits of the Benchmark Dose (BD) approach also are illustrated. In particular, the BD approach is shown to be a useful step towards harmonizing carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risk assessment.
  • Annali di igiene: medicina preventiva e di comunità 11(2):125-32.