Luigi Anolli

Università degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca, Milano, Lombardy, Italy

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Publications (32)23.12 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: This article outlines an exploratory comparative study of the vocal expression of emotions in Chinese versus Italian cultures. Given a strong relationship between voice and emotion, it is of special interest to analyze whether and how this connection may covariate with cultural influences in shaping emotions. Forty-eight undergraduates (29 Chinese and 19 Italian) are asked to read aloud short stories inducing different emotions (joy, sadness, anger, fear, contempt, pride, guilt, and shame) within a scenario approach. Subsequently, acoustic (sonographic) analysis is carried out on the recorded readings. On the one hand, the results confirm that different emotions may be expressed via variations in the modulation of vocal cues, in both cultures; on the other hand, differences in the specific patterns of vocal cues in expressing emotions are identified between Chinese and Italian participants. Theoretical implications of these findings are discussed.
    Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology 01/2008; 39(5):565-598. · 1.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The measurement of human behavior is a complex task, both for psychologists and human sciences researchers and with respect to technology, since advanced and sophisticated instruments may have to be implemented to manage the plurality of variables involved. In this article, an observational study is presented in which a quantitative procedure, the external variables method (Duncan & Fiske, 1977), was integrated with a structural analysis (Magnusson, 1993, 2000) in order to detect the hidden organization of nonverbal behavior in Italian and Icelandic interactions. To this aim, Theme software was introduced and employed. The results showed that both the frequency and the typology of gestures deeply change as a function of culture. Moreover, a high number of patterns was detected in both Italian and Icelandic interactions: They appeared to be complex sequences in which a huge number of events were constantly happening and recurring. In this domain, Theme software provides a methodological progression from the quantitative to the structural approach.
    Behavior Research Methods 08/2006; 38(3):364-71. · 2.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Linguistic Intergroup Bias (LIB) illustrates the disposition to communicate positive in-group and negative out-group behaviors more abstractly than negative in-group and positive out-group behaviors. The present research examined the function of language in reinforcing this bias in political communication. To illustrate the LIB, the Linguistic Category Model (LCM) was used, including a nouns category. Because social stereotypes are usually conveyed by nominal terms, the aim was to observe the relationship between stereotypes and language in political communication. Moreover, we were interested in analyzing the psychological processes that drive the LIB. Therefore, we verified whether the LIB is more related to language abstractness than to agent-patient causality. Several political debates and interviews, which took place before the latest Italian provincial elections, were analyzed. Results suggested that the language politicians use in communicating about political groups are conceptualized as stereotypes rather than as trait-based categories. Moreover, it seems that the LIB could not be explained only at a lexical level. Social implications of the present findings in interpersonal relations and causal attribution were discussed.
    The Journal of General Psychology 08/2006; 133(3):237-55. · 1.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Conflicting claims have been presented in the literature about on-line management of personal relationships. The current research, carried out in a substantially descriptive design, aimed to consider psychological and social features of a particular electronic environment, the Chat room. One hundred fifty-eight participants filled out an on-line questionnaire set, designed to investigate the personality traits and the prevailing interpersonal values of those participants who set up interpersonal relationships on-line. The Web research showed that, if sampling control and validity assessment were provided, it could be a valid alternative to a more traditional paper-based procedure. The results highlighted that Chat users were not an homogenous group, but were composed of different personality types. Basically, however, this specific virtual environment proved to be crowded with rather close individuals, who were looking for independence but who needed also to be supported and encouraged. They created deep on-line relationships, but these remained limited to the virtual world.
    CyberPsychology & Behavior 03/2005; 8(1):89-95. · 2.71 Impact Factor
  • Luigi Anolli, Michela Balconi
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    ABSTRACT: Links between mental working models, attachment style, and linguistic strategies were analyzed in the present research, which focused on linguistic choices made by marital couples. Eight couples (16 Italian subjects, M age=49.1, SD=0.4) with drug-addicted sons and undergoing systemic therapeutic treatment were recruited. Conversational transcripts were coded by two judges. The research analyzed (a) the definition of a topics map derived from the Adult Attachment Interview, using the discursive level of the topic; (b) the systemic-functional analysis of the topics, through both the micro- and macro-unit levels and the lexical/semantic indexes of the discourse; (c) the within-couple convergence in terms of linguistic moves, and, more generally, of their cognitive strategies. Specifically, a hierarchical model of the topic organization was used to explain the recursivity of the thematic choices made by the participants. Secondly, the characterization of the topics in terms of their cognitive/emotive values (high/low "critical" topics) was explained, especially through some "linguistic markers" as disfluency or lexical/semantic indexes (i.e., linguistic variety and completeness indexes). Third, it was found that different and specific linguistic strategies were adopted by the couples in order to reiterate their internal working models. The high convergence of linguistic patterns inside the marital couple was discussed as representative of "dysfunctional" working models, from both the communicative and relational points of view.
    Psychological Reports 03/2005; 96(1):83-106. · 0.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This paper presents a multimodal database developed within the EU- funded project MYSELF. The project aims at developing an e-learning platform endowed with affective computing capabilities for the training of relational skills through interactive simulations. The database includes data coming from 34 participants and concerning physiological parameters, vocal nonverbal fea- tures, facial mimics and posture. Ten different emotions were considered (an- ger, joy, sadness, fear, contempt, shame, guilt, pride, frustration and boredom), ranging from primary to self-conscious emotions of particular relevance in learning process and interpersonal relationships. Preliminary results and analy- ses are presented, together with directions for future work.
    Affective Computing and Intelligent Interaction, First International Conference, ACII 2005, Beijing, China, October 22-24, 2005, Proceedings; 01/2005
  • Luigi Anolli, Patrizia Pascucci
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    ABSTRACT: This study investigated the distinct affective experiences of shame and guilt as well as the shame- and guilt-proneness in Indian and Italian young adults. Two undergraduate samples (132 Indian and 134 Italian) were administered the Emotional Experience Questionnaire (EEQ) and the Test of Self-Conscious Affect (TOSCA). Data showed that both emotion specificity and culture explain sizable amount of the variance in the emotion reports. Particularly, the distinction between shame and guilt as separate emotional experiences was confirmed. Moreover, Indian participants reported to react more intensely to shame, and Italian ones tended to react more intensely to guilt. However, considering the proneness, Indian young adults turned out to be more sensitive both to guilt and shame. These findings highlight the distinction between shame and guilt experiences and shame- and guilt-proneness. Further, they suggest a revision of the traditional hypothesis of a basic distinction between shame (Eastern) and guilt (Western) cultures.
    Personality and Individual Differences. 01/2005;
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    ABSTRACT: Deceptive communication has been recently studied by many scholars, both in naturalistic studies in the field and in experimental research programs carried out in the laboratory, but this scientific domain remains devoid of a viable theory.
    02/2004;
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    ABSTRACT: This paper explores the risks and reward of ironic communication.
    02/2004;
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    ABSTRACT: Seductive interaction is here analyzed as a flexible plurality of behavioral patterns, corresponding to the variety of communicative intentions: exhibition, approaching the partner, deepening reciprocal knowledge, and reaching of a level of intimacy. The attention is moved from a structural analysis in which seduction is described as a timed flow of interactions characterized by different "steps", to a complementary approach which analyzes the communicative seductive behavior in each phase and shows some of the time-related dimensions, such as sequence, frequency, synchronization and simultaneity, which are required to describe seductive communication behavioral patterns. It particularly makes it possible to analyze the connections between different systems of expression (verbal and nonverbal) and to describe several seductive strategies of obliquity and to disguise tactical communication, which are defined as miscommunication forms. These communicative strategies -- paradoxical exhibition, forms of discursive obliquity, the multimodal message and nonverbal synchronization - are based on the "undefined content" of the message. It is because of this that seductive communication is tantalizing, leaving much to the partner's imagination and promising her more than she has already seen. Moreover, the fact that the content is "undefined" allows the content itself to be adapted and modified to best suit the situation, thus lessening the risk of being too invasive and of being rejected. Secondly, it is shown how these strategies are carried out concentrating on the "undefined form" of the message, or rather, on the synergy between different expressive signals which make up the message.
    02/2004;
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    ABSTRACT: Contemporary views on facial expression take for granted that there are some basic emotions that are manifested by a few typical facial expressions.
    02/2004;
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    ABSTRACT: The main goal of this chapter is the analysis of cyber-attraction: the emergence of Computer Mediated Communication (CMC) in the development of interpersonal attraction. According to recent theories and studies, it would seem that not only does CMC support emotional and intensely involving communication between people, but also that it would be characterized by and offer a specific allure, a special element that makes it so fascinating. In particular, different forms of miscommunication - implicit, say not to say, and obliquity -- play an important role in this process.
    02/2004;
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    ABSTRACT: More than 10 years ago, Tart (1990) described virtual reality (VR) as a technological model of consciousness offering intriguing possibilities for developing diagnostic, inductive, psychotherapeutic, and training techniques that can extend and supplement current ones. To exploit and understand this potential is the overall goal of the "Telemedicine and Portable Virtual Environment in Clinical Psychology"--VEPSY UPDATED--a European Community-funded research project (IST-2000-25323, www.cybertherapy.info). Particularly, its specific goal is the development of different PC-based virtual reality modules to be used in clinical assessment and treatment of social phobia, panic disorders, male sexual disorders, obesity, and eating disorders. The paper describes the clinical and technical rationale behind the clinical applications developed by the project. Moreover, the paper focuses its analysis on the possible role of VR in clinical psychology and how it can be used for therapeutic change.
    CyberPsychology & Behavior 09/2003; 6(4):433-9. · 2.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The use of a multicomponent cognitive-behavioral treatment strategy for panic disorder with agoraphobia is actually one of the preferred therapeutic approaches for this disturbance. This method involves a mixture of cognitive and behavioral techniques that are intended to help patients identify and modify their dysfunctional anxiety-related thoughts, beliefs and behavior. The paper presents a new treatment protocol for Panic Disorder and Agoraphobia, named Experiential-Cognitive Therapy (ECT) that integrates the use of virtual reality (VR) in a multicomponent cognitive-behavioral treatment strategy. The VR software used for the trial is freely downloadable: www.cyberpsychology.info/try.htm. Moreover, the paper presents the result of a controlled study involving 12 consecutive patients aged 35-53. The selected subjects were randomly divided in three groups: ECT group, that experienced the Cognitive Behavioral Therapy-Virtual Reality assisted treatment (eight sessions), a CBT group that experienced the traditional Cognitive Behavioral approach (12 sessions) and a waiting list control group. The data showed that both CBT and ECT could significantly reduce the number of panic attacks, the level of depression and both state and trait anxiety. However, ECT procured these results using 33% fewer sessions than CBT. This datum suggests that ECT could be better than CBT in relation to the "cost of administration," justifying the added use of VR equipment in the treatment of panic disorders.
    CyberPsychology & Behavior 07/2003; 6(3):321-8. · 2.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Internet can be an effective medium for the posting, exchange, and collection of information in psychology-related research and data. The relative ease and inexpensiveness of creating and maintaining Web-based applications, associated with the simplicity of use via the graphic-user interface format of form-based surveys, can establish a new research frontier for the social and behavioral sciences. To explore the possible use of Internet tools in psychological research, this study compared Web-based assessment techniques with traditional paper-based methods of different measures of Internet attitudes and behaviors in an Italian sample. The collected data were analyzed to identify both differences between the two samples and in the psychometric characteristics of the questionnaires. Even if we found significant differences between the two samples in the Internet attitudes and behaviors, no relevant differences were found in the psychometric properties of the different questionnaires. This result, similar to the ones previously obtained in Web-based assessments of personality constructs, is even more interesting given the lack of control on the characteristics of the online sample. These finding suggests that, if sampling control and validity assessment is provided, Internet-based questionnaires can be a suitable alternative to more traditional paper-based measures.
    CyberPsychology & Behavior 03/2003; 6(1):73-80. · 2.71 Impact Factor
  • Luigi Anolli, Michela Balconi, Rita Ciceri
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    ABSTRACT: This paper was aimed at addressing the topic of communicative styles of deception. University students were asked to describe a picture with varying truth/lie conditions. In accordance with their perception or being deliberately against it, the participant could: tell the truth (T); lie to an acquiescent recipient (L1); or lie to a suspicious recipient (L2). The goal was to investigate whether or not different linguistic styles could be correlated to the cognitive complexity of the task as regards the truth bias or lie bias of the recipient. Specifically, two sets of linguistic aspects - micro and macro structural - were analyzed. In the former, indices were considered as words (arguments number, repetitions and interruptions, fluency and fluency disorder indices), predicates (number, nominal/predicative construction, and personal/impersonal structure), pronouns and adverbial forms. In the latter, the structural variations of the standard phrase, utterances' complexity, spatial organization of utterances, and speech organization were analyzed. Results showed that participants used speech to shield from reality and chose different strategies; in the L1 condition, participants resorted to ambiguity and prolixity (“cuttlefish effect”); on the contrary, in the L2 condition they used concise assertiveness and elliptic eluding strategies (“chameleon effect”).
    Social Behavior and Personality An International Journal 12/2002; 31(7):687-710. · 0.31 Impact Factor
  • Luigi Anolli, Rita Ciceri
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    ABSTRACT: The authors analyzed the suprasegmental (temporary) vocal profiles of 19 young men (not married) during their seductive interaction with 19 young women (not married) whom they had not known previously. The aim of the research was to verify the specificity, the sequential temporal stream, and the efficacy of the acoustical features of the seducer's voice during seductive interaction. In an ecological laboratory situation, the male participants were asked to meet their female partners. Participant-by-participant analysis showed that the male seductive voice is characterized by strong variations during the course of the seductive sequence. At the beginning of the sequence it had a higher pitch and an elevated intensity, as well as a faster rate of articulation than it did during normal speech (the exhibition voice). In the following phases it became gradually lower, weaker, and warmer (the self-disclosure voice). The modulation and variability of the vocal profiles during the seductive interaction were significantly stressed in the 9 successful seducers (those who succeeded in arranging a subsequent meeting with the partner), compared with the 10 unsuccessful seducers. The results have been interpreted as an ability to perform an effective local management of seductive communication.
    The Journal of General Psychology 05/2002; 129(2):149-69. · 1.04 Impact Factor
  • Luigi Anolli, Michela Balconi
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    ABSTRACT: The paper examined the Adult Attachment Interview with special reference to thematic and semantic analysis in line with the discourse study (van Dijk, 1997). The hypothesis was that correspondence between the communicative organization of speech and the mental representations of the attachment experiences would be substantial. Eight Adult Attachment Interview transcripts of fathers with a heroin addicted young son were analyzed at two levels, (a) thematic analysis to individuate the topics of their talk applying the structural and semantic study of discourse and (b) enunciative analysis of speech to define their linguistic patterns utilizing a set of linguistic micro- and macro-units. Results showed nine main topics in the Adult Attachment Interview, each of which was characterized by a distinctive linguistic profile. In this perspective this device seems to be effective not only for discriminating attachment styles between subjects but also to identify differences within subjects belonging to the same attachment pattern.
    Psychological Reports 03/2002; 90(1):279-99. · 0.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This article outlines the model of irony seen as a "fencing game." The starting point is the metaphor of the "dark glasses" (R. Barthes, 1977), according to which irony is considered as a mask revealing, paradoxically, what it apparently hides. Basing the study on both perspectives of symbolic interactionism and planning communication theory, the authors analyze the social functions of irony (to evade censure in a socially correct way, to safeguard private space, to renegotiate meanings). In this framework, irony is described as a script of actions that people use astutely in order to strike antagonists in a graceful but "stinging" way, just like fencers in a competition. The fencing game model of irony foresees 4 steps: the textual and contextual assumptions (i.e., shared knowledge), the focal event (the trigger of irony), the dialogic comment (the ironic utterance the speaker performs by combining verbal and nonverbal aspects), and the ironic effect referring to the addressee's feedback (denying, misunderstanding, touché). The advantages of the fencing game model of irony are also considered.
    Genetic Social and General Psychology Monographs 03/2002; 128(1):76-95.
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    ABSTRACT: The emergence of new shared media, such as the Internet and virtual reality are changing the ways in which people relate, communicate, and live. Health care, and in particular clinical psychology, is one of the areas that could be most dramatically reshaped by these new technologies. To exploit and understand this potential is the overall goal of the "Telemedicine and Portable Virtual Environment in Clinical Psychology"--VEPSY UPDATED--an European Community funded research project (IST-2000-25323, http://www.vepsy.com) whose specific goal is the development of different PC based virtual reality modules to be used in clinical assessment and treatment. In particular the developed modules have been using to address the following pathologies: anxiety disorders; male impotence and premature ejaculation; obesity, bulimia and binge-eating disorders. The chapter details the general technical and clinical characteristics of the developed modules.
    Studies in health technology and informatics 02/2002; 85:395-401.