K Kai

Tokyo Women's Medical University, Edo, Tōkyō, Japan

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Publications (22)29.5 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: We assessed the impact of hypertension on renal transplant function and survival in the past decade after introduction of mycophenolate mofetil and rituximab. We examined the 184 patients who underwent renal transplantation from March 1982 to September 1999 and presented at our outpatient clinic from 2001 to 2011. They were divided into group 1 with mean systolic blood pressure (mSBP) >130 mm Hg and Group 2 with mSBP <130 mm Hg. We compared mean serum creatinine (sCr) levels for 9 years and 12-year actuarial graft survival rates. Risk factors for graft survival were assessed by Cox regression analysis. There were 75 group 1 and 109 group 2 recipients. The mean sCr level of group 1 was 1.59 ± 0.12 mg/dL and that of group 2 1.54 ± 0.10 mg/dL (P < .0001). Of note was that mean sCr levels of group 1 started to increase about 3 years after transplantation. Although 5-year graft survival rates of both groups were 100%, 9- and 12-year rates among group 1 were 97.3% and 90.5%, respectively, whereas among group 2 they were 99.1% and 98.1%, respectively (P = .0195). Cox univariate and multivariate analyses showed mean SBP to be the only significant risk factor for graft survival (P < .05). We concluded that the hypertensive group showed deteriorating renal function from around 3 years after transplantation that lowered graft survival afterward, resulting in a clear distinction from the nonhypertensive group at around 10 years after transplantation. Mean SBP was a significant risk factor for graft survival. Hypertension may be a surrogate for a poor renal graft prognosis in the long run.
    Transplantation Proceedings 04/2012; 44(3):629-31. · 0.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Renal transplantation (RTx) in carriers of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) has a risk of developing overt leukemia upon immunosuppression. Although there have been a few reports of such cases, it is unclear HTLV-1 carrier if patients on the modern immunosuppressants would develop HTLV-1-associated myelopathy or adult T-cell leukemia lymphoma. We retrospectively reviewed the clinical outcomes of RTx in nine HTLV-1 carriers to assess a risk of developing leukemia from 2002 to 2011 using immunosuppression with a calcineurin inhibitor, mycophenolate mofetil (MMF), and steroid. The anti-CD25 monoclonal antibody basiliximab was used for induction. In two cases of ABO-incompatible RTx, the rituximab was also administered before RTx. The ratio of male to female subjects was 2 to 7 with an overall mean recipient age of 54.3 ± 8.1 years. We prescribed cyclosporine (n = 5) or tacrolimus (n = 4). There was only one graft loss due to the death caused by aspiration pneumonia with a functioning graft. No one developed overt leukemia with combined treatment with MMF, basiliximab and rituximab. We concluded that RTx in HTLV-1 carriers could be performed using a modern immunosuppressive regimen, without the risk of developing leukemia.
    Transplantation Proceedings 01/2012; 44(1):83-6. · 0.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We perform living-related ABO-incompatible kidney transplantations to alleviate the organ shortage in our country. Splenectomy has been performed routinely in these recipients, although its clinical significance remains controversial. In this study, we have reported our experience with a hand-assisted laparoscopic splenectomy (HALS) technique. Between April 2000 and December 2006, 50 patients (23 males) underwent ABO-incompatible kidney transplantation with HALS. The mean age and weight of the recipients were 44 +/- 13 years and 56 +/- 12 kg, respectively. All patients underwent preoperative plasmapheresis to reduce isoagglutinin (A and/or B antibody). In 6/50 patients, a hand-assisted device was placed through a peritoneal window in the right lower abdominal skin incision for kidney engraftment. In the remaining 44 patients, a 6-cm upper midline or periumbilical midline incision was made for the hand-assisted device in the lateral position. An ABO-incompatible procedure was completed successfully in all cases. The average HALS time was 118 +/- 42 minutes, with an average pneumoperitoneum time of 79 +/- 40 minutes and average blood loss of 48 +/- 81 g. There were two conversions to open splenectomy because of intraoperative bleeding and suspected pneumothorax. Two other cases required relaparotomy because of hematoma and perforation of the ileum. Successfully operations were achieved through the previous periumbilical incision. Although meticulous, rigorous surgical technique is essential, HALS is safe and feasible for recipients of ABO-incompatible grafts with tissue weakness and a bleeding tendency because of renal failure and preoperative plasmapheresis.
    Transplantation Proceedings 10/2008; 40(7):2336-8. · 0.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Because bone marrow is an adequate site for bone marrow stem cells, intra-bone marrow - bone marrow transplantation (IBM-BMT) is an efficient strategy for bone marrow transplantation (BMT). However, the fate of the transplanted cells remains unclear. Herein, we established a dual-colored transgenic rat system utilizing green fluorescent protein (GFP) and a luciferase (luc) marker. We then utilized this system to investigate the in vivo kinetics of transplanted bone marrow cells (BMCs) after authentic intravenous (IV)-BMT or IBM-BMT. The in vivo fate of the transplanted cells was tracked using an in vivo luminescent imaging technique; alterations in peripheral blood chimerism were also followed using flow cytometry. IBM-BMT and IV-BMT were performed using syngeneic and allogeneic rat combinations. While no difference in the proliferation pattern was observed between the two treatment groups at 7 days after BMT, different distribution patterns were clearly observed during the early phase. In the IBM-BMT-treated rats, the transplanted BMCs were engrafted immediately at the site of the injected bone marrow and expanded more rapidly than in the IV-BMT-treated rats during this phase. Graft-versus-host disease was also visualized. Our bio-imaging system using dual-colored transgenic rats is a powerful tool for performing quantitative and morphological assessments in vivo.
    Proc SPIE 02/2008;
  • Transplantation 01/2008; 86. · 3.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Outcomes of renal transplantation from donation after cardiac death (DCD) donors over 30 years were analyzed. Between 1975 and 2004, 256 renal transplantations from DCD donors were performed. The recipients were divided into four groups according to a time period as follows: 1975-1979 (Group 1; n = 18), 1980-1989 (Group 2; n = 81), 1990-1999 (Group 3; n = 84) and 2000-2004 (Group 4; n = 73). Of the 256 transplanted kidneys from DCD donors, 38 (15%) functioned immediately after transplantation. The incidence of delayed graft function (DGF) was 72%. Warm ischemic time and total ischemic time were 7.4 +/- 9.4 min and 11.9 +/- 5.6 h, respectively. The overall graft survival rates at 1, 5 and 10 years were 80%, 72% and 53%, respectively. Graft survival rates in each group have continually improved over time (5-year graft survival; 23% vs. 64% vs. 74% vs. 91%, respectively). However, there was no significant difference in graft survival rates between the groups of patients who survived with a functioning graft for more than 1 year. A multivariate Cox regression analysis showed acute rejection and donor age to be independently associated with graft outcome. DCD donors are a valuable source of kidneys for transplantation with promising long-term outcomes.
    American Journal of Transplantation 04/2007; 7(3):609-17. · 6.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Adverse effects of steroids have led to efforts to minimize their use in recipients of organ transplants. This study evaluated an early steroid withdrawal protocol including basiliximab, cyclosporine (CsA) and mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) in renal-transplant recipients. Between January 2001 and April 2005, our early steroid withdrawal protocol was used in 130 patients who underwent renal transplantation. Immunosuppression consisted of CsA (6-8 mg/kg), MMF (2 g/kg) and methylprednisolone (MP); basiliximab was given as induction therapy (steroid withdrawal group). MP was administered in a dose of 500 mg or 250 mg at renal transplantation; thereafter, the dose was rapidly tapered and MP was withdrawn on day 14 post-transplant. The incidence of acute rejection in the steroid withdrawal group was similar to that in the conventional steroid treatment group (without basiliximab) (18% vs. 21%). The severity of rejection episodes was similar in the two groups. Patient and graft survivals were 100% and 97% in the steroid withdrawal group. In 80 of the 130 patients (62%) in the steroid withdrawal group, MP was successfully withdrawn, with good allograft function during follow-up. In the other 50 patients (38%), MP was reinitiated because of acute rejection or other reasons. The success rate of steroid withdrawal 12 months after transplantation in recipients of ABO-compatible grafts was significantly higher than that in recipients of ABO-incompatible grafts (66% vs. 44%). The dose of MMF during the 12 months after renal transplantation was significantly lower in steroid reinitiated group than in the successful withdrawn group (p<0.05). Patients in the successful withdrawn group showed metabolic benefits such as lower cholesterol levels as compared with the steroid reinitiated group. Although further follow-up is necessary to confirm our results, our protocol successfully permitted the early withdrawal of steroids in 62% of renal-transplant recipients, with no resumption of steroid treatment during 3 years of follow-up.
    International Immunopharmacology 12/2006; 6(13-14):1984-92. · 2.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Effect of early steroid withdrawal protocol using basiliximab in kidney transplantation (KTx) on the clinical outcomes was investigated as compared with triple regimen. Kidney transplant patients in group 1 (n = 62) were treated with 8 mg/kg of cyclosporine (CsA), 2000 mg of MMF, two bolus IV injections of 20 mg of basiliximab and 500 mg of methylprednisolone (MP) rapidly tapered and withdrawn at 14 postoperative days (POD). Group 2 (n = 56) was treated with same dose of CsA and MMF, and 250 mg of MP tapered and continued. Acute rejection (AR) episodes were treated with MP pulse therapy followed by muromonab CD3 (OKT3) in case of steroid-resistant rejection. In 46 of 62 cases (74.2%) in group 1, steroid was successfully withdrawn at 13.7 +/- 1.7 POD. Graft survival at 3, 6, and 12 months in group 1 was 100%, 100%, and 98.4% (one death with functioning graft), and 100%, 98.2%, and 96.4% in group 2, respectively. The incidence of AR was 12.9% for group 1 and 42.9% for group 2, among which 21 cases in group 2 were treated with ALG or OKT3; no patient needed ALG or OKT3 in group 1. Fifteen cases in group 1 and 13 cases in group 2 developed CMV antigenemia, among which febrile episode was exhibited in 3 cases (4.8%) in group 1 and 5 cases (8.9%) in group 2. Early steroid withdrawal protocol using basiliximab is promising for reducing the incidence of AR (especially steroid-resistant rejection), CMV diseases, and steroid-related complications.
    Transplantation Proceedings 04/2005; 37(2):791-4. · 0.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Basiliximab added to a maintenance regimen consisting of cyclosporine microemulsion and mycophenolate mofetil was studied for its effectiveness in allowing early steroid withdrawal in renal transplantation. Furthermore, the cyclosporine-sparing effects between groups with and without basiliximab induction therapy were compared. Between September 2001 and June 2003, 90 patients underwent renal transplants with cyclosporine-based immunosuppression, namely, cyclosporine, mycophenolate mofetil, and methylprednisolone, (group 1; n = 25). During the latter half of the study basiliximab was administered during the induction phase (group 2; n = 65). In group 2, steroids were completely withdrawn on postoperative day 14 in 57 patients. The incidence of acute rejection was significantly higher among group 1 patients (P = .005). The incidence of steroid-resistant rejection in group 1 patients was significantly higher (P = .025). At each time point cyclosporine levels in group 1 patients were significantly higher (P < .01). The incidence of infection was comparable between the groups. Patient and graft survival rates in group 1 were 100% and 100%; in group 2, they were 99% and 99%, respectively. In group 2, steroids were discontinued in 57 patients with permanent withdrawal achieved in 32 patients (56%). The use of basiliximab, together with mycophenolate mofetil allowed for a significant reduction in the cyclosporine dose without increasing the risk of acute rejection. Although further follow-up is necessary to confirm the effect, this regimen may attenuate cyclosporine nephrotoxicity thereby affecting the long-term outcomes of renal transplantation.
    Transplantation Proceedings 03/2005; 37(2):895-8. · 0.95 Impact Factor
  • Satoshi Teraoka, Kotaro Kai
    Nippon Jinzo Gakkai shi 02/2005; 47(5):497-507.
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    ABSTRACT: Laparoscopic live donor nephrectomy is not yet widespread in Japan. After our first hand-assisted laparoscopic live donor nephrectomy (HALapNx) in 2001, we report our 100 cases and examine the possibility of making this technique widely available in Japan. HALapNx was performed in 100 cases (44 males and 56 females) from February 2001 through July 2003. The operative procedure for HALapNx was briefly described here. First, 2 12-mm ports were placed in the midaxillary line at the superior and inferior level of the umbilicus. Next, a 5-cm incision was made in the midline periumbilicus and the hand port system was fitted through the abdominal incision. After 10 mm Hg pneumoperitoneum, HALapNx begins with mobilization of the left colon. HALapNx was completed successfully in all cases and no patients required conversion to laparotomy. The estimated blood loss was 33.5 +/- 40.3 g and no patient required blood transfusion. The mean operative time was 168.8 +/- 47.6 minutes, and there was no major complication in a donor. HALapNx is technically feasible and may offer several advantages over open donor nephrectomy in terms of less blood loss, less postoperative pain, and minimal cosmetic disfigurement. In Japan, laparoscopic donor nephrectomy is not yet widespread, possibly due to the need for surgical laparoscopic skills. We believe that the best way to make laparoscopic donor naphrectomy widely available is through hand-assisted laparoscopic surgery.
    Transplantation Proceedings 10/2004; 36(7):1898-900. · 0.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) is a more potent immunosuppressive drug than azathioprine or mizoribine in combination with cyclosporine (CsA) and steroids. Recently, basiliximab (BA), an interleukin-2 receptor antagonist, has become available in Japan. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of an extremely low CsA dose immunosuppressive protocol with MMF versus MMF plus BA after renal transplantation (RTx). Between September 2001 and March 2003, we performed 79 RTx with CsA-based immunosuppression, including nine from cadavers and 70 from living donors with 15 ABO-incompatible RTx. Immunosuppression consisted of methylprednisolone (MP), CsA and MMF (group 1; n = 24) versus added BA during the induction phase (group 2; n = 55). In group 2, MP was withdrawn on postoperative day 14. Supplementary MP, muromonab-CD3, or gusperimus was administered if rejection was suspected clinically or diagnosed by biopsy. The incidence of biopsy-proven acute rejection (AR) was significantly higher among group 1 than group 2 patients (P < .05). CsA C2 levels in group 1 were significantly higher than group 2 at each time (P < .01). The incidence of infection was comparable. Patient and graft survival rates in group 1 were 100% and 100%; in group 2, they were 98% and 98%, respectively. The short-term results of RTx were favorable in both the MMF, and the MMF plus BA immunosuppression. In addition, BA significantly reduced the number of AR episodes. Early steroid withdrawal in recipients receiving BA induction was not associated with an increased risk of AR.
    Transplantation Proceedings 10/2004; 36(7):2087-9. · 0.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We have performed ABO-incompatible (ABO-i) kidney transplantation (KT) to alleviate the severe organ shortage in our country. Induction therapy with basiliximab, a monoclonal anti-interleukin-2 receptor antibody, is known to be effective in reducing the incidence of acute rejection (AR) after ABO-compatible KT. However, the efficacy of basiliximab in ABO-i KT is still unknown. In this study, we evaluated the effect of basiliximab to decrease overall maintenance immunosuppression (a steroid withdrawal protocol) and to improve the outcome of ABO-i KT. Between April 2002 and May 2003, 14 adult patients underwent ABO-i KT from living donors with cyclosporine (CsA)-based immunosuppression. There were seven men and seven women of mean age 48 +/- 10 years. Three of the 12 cases were second KT. Three sessions of plasmapheresis were performed to remove anti-AB antibodies before KT. Splenectomy was performed in all patients. Immunosuppression consisted of methylprednisolone (MP), CsA, and mycophenolate mofetil, in addition to antibody induction with basiliximab. MP was completely withdrawn on postoperative day 14. In 3 of 14 recipients, MP was restarted because of AR or a suspicion of AR. Both patient and graft survivals were 100%. The incidence of biopsy-proven AR was 14% (2/14). There was no adverse effect related to the antibody therapy. The use of basiliximab induction therapy may eliminate the need for steroid maintenance therapy without increasing AR risk, even among ABO-i KT recipients. We conclude that basiliximab provides safe and effective induction immunosuppression in ABO-i KT recipients.
    Transplantation Proceedings 10/2004; 36(7):2182-3. · 0.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: An intraoperative fluorescent imaging system (SPY system; Novadaq Technologies, Inc, Concord, Ontario, Canada) that enables vascular surgeons to confirm the location and states of the reconstructed vessels during surgery, has been developed in the field of open heart surgery. In this paper, we evaluated the usefulness of the SPY system in kidney and liver transplantation. SPY system visualizes arteries and grafts intraoperatively, using indocyanine green (ICG) with a portable imaging device. The modality was evaluated in 15 patients undergoing kidney (n = 13) or liver (n = 2) transplantation with respect to safety, feasibility of use, and image quality. Images were generated and acquired with a portable laser diode/infrared camera device after injection of 10 mL of ICG (2.5 mg/mL) intravenously. There was no complication associated with ICG injection or the imaging device. The SPY system was easily used during transplant surgery and adequately demonstrated reconstructed arteries and patency in all patients. The intraoperative imaging system enables the surgeon to view, record, and replay real-time images of the reconstructed arteries during surgery. The system may provide useful information during surgery such as solid organ transplantation that requires vascular reconstruction.
    Transplantation Proceedings 10/2004; 36(7):2188-90. · 0.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Portopulmonary hypertension is a complication of end-stage liver disease that adversely affects the outcome of liver transplantation (LT). We report a case of living related LT who developed severe pulmonary hypertension during and after LT. This 16-year-old girl suffered from biliary atresia, having undergone a portoenterostomy at 60 days of age, at the time of discovery of liver cirrhosis. She had been admitted to a local hospital several times for episodes of esophageal variceal bleeding. Neither dyspnea nor cyanosis was discerned until LT. Although pulmonary hypertension (PH) was disclosed by echocardiogram upon preoperative evaluation, we did not consider this a contraindication for LT, because the PH was mild. She underwent living LT from her father (graft volume/recipient body weight ratio: 0.99%). After induction of anesthesia for LT, a pulmonary flotation catheterization showed severe PH (>40 mm Hg). The pulmonary artery pressure continued to be elevated during surgery, although it was possible that her severe scoliosis affected the data. Hyperbilirubinemia was observed after LT, despite good liver function tests. On postoperative day 12, a portal vein thrombosis was detected requiring emergency thrombectomy and splenectomy. Her general condition worsened after the second surgery. She died due to cardiopulmonary failure. Autopsy showed marked hypertrophy of the right ventricle with intimal thickening in the pulmonary artery. In this case, the underestimated PH might have resulted in the unfortunate outcome. Before LT, PH should be carefully evaluated by measures including invasive assessment.
    Transplantation Proceedings 10/2004; 36(8):2237-8. · 0.95 Impact Factor
  • Transplantation Proceedings 04/2004; 36(2 Suppl):478S-482S. · 0.95 Impact Factor
  • Transplantation Proceedings 03/2003; 35(1):321-2. · 0.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Administration of corticosteroids to kidney recipients has hampered the complete clinical success of kidney transplantation. Because most organ transplantation in Japan is living-related, we had the experience of performing kidney transplantation (KT) after liver transplantation (LT) from the same donor in four patients and successfully withdrew corticosteroid administration. Three pediatric and one adult patient received kidney allografts from 3 to 10 months after LT from the same donor. The immunosuppressive regimen consisted of a corticosteroid and tacrolimus. The steroid was withdrawn after KT in all four patients. After complete withdrawal of the steroid, DNA was extracted from two recipients and examined by polymerase chain reaction to detect microchimerism. A mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) and cell-mediated lymphocytotoxicity assay (CML) were performed to test for donor-specific hyporesponsiveness. Steroid withdrawal was successfully accomplished after KT in every patient. No steroid-withdrawal-associated complications were observed. In the three pediatric patients, remarkable catch-up growth was observed after steroid withdrawal. In the two patients tested, donor DNA was not detected by polymerase chain reaction, suggesting the absence of microchimerism. MLR and CML showed that recipient lymphocytes reacted against donor lymphocytes at the same level as against the third-party lymphocytes. Steroid withdrawal was successfully achieved in four kidney recipients who had received a liver allograft from the same donor. The MLR and CML findings indicated the absence of donor-specific hyporesponsiveness in vitro. Although the precise mechanism is not yet clear, KT after LT from the same donor should be considered as a method that allows steroids to be withdrawn from the immunosuppressive regimen of KT.
    Transplantation 04/2002; 73(6):948-52. · 3.78 Impact Factor
  • Transplantation Proceedings 01/2001; 33(1-2):889-90. · 0.95 Impact Factor
  • Transplantation Proceedings 12/1999; 31(7):2697. · 0.95 Impact Factor