[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in women in the western world. Several studies have described the association between hypertensive pregnancy disorders and CVD in later life. Our aim was to compare postpartum cardiovascular risk factors in women who had a shorter and women who had a longer exposure to endothelial activation during their term hypertensive pregnancy.
We studied a subsample of women with pregnancy-induced hypertension or mild preeclampsia at term, who had participated in the randomized HYPITAT trial comparing induction of labour (IOL cohort) (n=110) or expectant monitoring (EM cohort) (n=91). We assessed, 2.5 years postpartum, cardiovascular risk factors, i.e. blood pressure, anthropometrics, glucose, HbA1C, insulin, HOMA score, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, high sensitive CRP, micro-albumin and metabolic syndrome, and compared these risk factors between the induction and expectant groups.
The mean time from randomization to delivery was 3.3 days in the induction group and 10.3 days in the expectant group (p<.001), generating a difference in exposure of 7 days. After a mean follow-up period of 2.5 years, the prevalence of hypertension (IOL 34%; EM 37%, p=.66) and metabolic syndrome (IOL 26%; EM 27%, p=1.0) was similar in both groups. Furthermore, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, BMI, waist circumference, glucose, HbA1C, insulin, HOMA score, lipids, HsCRP-levels and micro-albumin were all comparable between women who had induction of labour and those who had expectant monitoring.
In women with hypertensive disorders in pregnancy at term, induction of labour does not affect the clinical and biochemical cardiovascular profile at 2.5 years postpartum.
European journal of obstetrics, gynecology, and reproductive biology 08/2013; · 1.97 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In women with a multiple pregnancy, spontaneous preterm delivery is the leading cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality. Interventions to reduce preterm birth in these women have not been successful. We assessed whether a cervical pessary could effectively prevent poor perinatal outcomes.
We undertook a multicentre, open-label randomised controlled trial in 40 hospitals in the Netherlands. We randomly assigned women with a multiple pregnancy between 12 and 20 weeks' gestation (1:1) to pessary or control groups, using a web-based application with a computer-generated list with random block sizes of two to four, stratified by hospital. Participants and investigators were aware of group allocation. For women in the pessary group, a midwife or obstetrician inserted a cervical pessary between 16 and 20 weeks' gestation. Women in the control group did not receive the pessary, but otherwise received similar obstetrical care to those in the pessary group. The primary outcome was a composite of poor perinatal outcome: stillbirth, periventricular leucomalacia, severe respiratory distress syndrome, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, intraventricular haemorrhage, necrotising enterocolitis, proven sepsis, and neonatal death. Analyses were by modified intention to treat. This trial is registered in the Dutch trial registry, number NTR1858.
Between Sept 21, 2009, and March 9, 2012, 813 women underwent randomisation, of whom 808 were analysed (401 in the pessary group; 407 in the control group). At least one child of 53 women (13%) in the pessary group had poor perinatal outcome, compared with 55 (14%) in the control group (relative risk 0·98, 95% CI 0·69-1·39).
In unselected women with a multiple pregnancy, prophylactic use of a cervical pessary does not reduce poor perinatal outcome.
The Netherlands Organisation for Health Research and Development.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pregnancies complicated by intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) are at increased risk for neonatal morbidity and mortality. The Dutch nationwide disproportionate intrauterine growth intervention trial at term (DIGITAT trial) showed that induction of labour and expectant monitoring were comparable with respect to composite adverse neonatal outcome and operative delivery. In this study we compare the costs of both strategies.
A cost analysis was performed alongside the DIGITAT trial, which was a randomized controlled trial in which 650 women with a singleton pregnancy with suspected IUGR beyond 36 weeks of pregnancy were allocated to induction or expectant management. Resource utilization was documented by specific items in the case report forms. Unit costs for clinical resources were calculated from the financial reports of participating hospitals. For primary care costs Dutch standardized prices were used. All costs are presented in Euros converted to the year 2009.
Antepartum expectant monitoring generated more costs, mainly due to longer antepartum maternal stays in hospital. During delivery and the postpartum stage, induction generated more direct medical costs, due to longer stay in the labour room and longer duration of neonatal high care/medium care admissions. From a health care perspective, both strategies generated comparable costs: on average €7106 per patient for the induction group (N=321) and €6995 for the expectant management group (N=329) with a cost difference of €111 (95%CI: €-1296 to 1641).
Induction of labour and expectant monitoring in IUGR at term have comparable outcomes immediately after birth in terms of obstetrical outcomes, maternal quality of life and costs. Costs are lower, however, in the expectant monitoring group before 38 weeks of gestation and costs are lower in the induction of labour group after 38 weeks of gestation. So if induction of labour is considered to pre-empt possible stillbirth in suspected IUGR, it is reasonable to delay until 38 weeks, with watchful monitoring.
European journal of obstetrics, gynecology, and reproductive biology 08/2013; · 1.97 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To assess the safety and effectiveness of a transcervical Foley catheter compared to vaginal prostaglandin E2 inserts for term induction of labour.
We conducted an open-label randomized controlled trial in five hospitals in the Netherlands. Women with a singleton term pregnancy in cephalic presentation, intact membranes, unfavourable cervix, and no prior caesarean section were enrolled. Participants were randomly allocated by a web-based randomization system to induction of labour with a 30ml Foley catheter or 10mg slow-release vaginal prostaglandin E2 inserts in a 1:1 ratio. Due to the nature of the intervention this study was not blinded. The primary outcome was the caesarean section rate. Secondary outcomes were maternal and neonatal morbidity and time from intervention to birth. Additionally, we carried out a systematic review and meta-analysis of similar studies.
We analyzed 226 women: 107 received a Foley catheter and 119 inserts. Caesarean section rates were comparable (20% versus 22%, RR 0.90, 95% CI 0.54-1.50). Secondary outcomes showed no differences. We observed no serious maternal or neonatal morbidity. Meta-analysis showed comparable caesarean section rates, but significantly fewer cases of hyperstimulation during the ripening phase when a Foley catheter was used.
We found, in this relatively small study, no differences in effectiveness and safety of induction of labour with a Foley catheter and 10mg slow release vaginal prostaglandin E2 inserts. Meta-analysis confirmed a comparable caesarean section rate, and showed fewer cases of hyperstimulation when a Foley catheter was used.
European journal of obstetrics, gynecology, and reproductive biology 07/2013; · 1.97 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Preeclampsia is associated with increased levels of the circulating antiangiogenic factor sFlt-1 and with an excessive shedding of placenta-derived multinucleated syncytial aggregates into the maternal circulation. However, it remains unclear whether these aggregates are transcriptionally active in the maternal organs and can, therefore, contribute to the systemic manifestations of preeclampsia. In this study, we measured placental soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1) mRNA levels in preeclamptic- and control placentas and performed RNA in situ hybridization to localize the main placental expression site of sFlt-1 mRNA. Because the maternal lung is the first capillary bed that circulating syncytial aggregates traverse, we studied the presence and persistence of placental material in lungs of preeclamptic and control subjects. To confirm the placental origin of these aggregates in maternal lungs, immunohistochemistry for the placenta-specific marker hCG (human chorionic ghonadotropin) and Y chromosome in situ hybridization were performed. Using human placental tissue, we found that syncytial knots are the principal site of expression of the antiangiogenic factor sFlt-1. In addition, autopsy material obtained from women with preeclampsia (n=9) showed significantly more placenta-derived syncytial aggregates in the lungs than in control subjects (n=26). Importantly, these aggregates still contained the antiangiogenic factor sFlt-1 after their entrapment in the maternal lungs. The current study confirms the important role of syncytial knots in placental sFlt-1 mRNA production. In addition, it shows a significant association between preeclampsia and larger quantities of sFlt-1 containing syncytial aggregates in maternal lungs, suggesting that the transfer of syncytial aggregates to the maternal compartment may contribute to the systemic endothelial dysfunction that characterizes preeclampsia.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: Maternal administration of 17-alpha-hydroxyprogesterone caproate (17OHPC) is increasingly utilized to prevent preterm birth, but fetal safety of 17OHPC is still a matter of concern. This study aimed to assess whether exposure to 17OHPC during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy affects fetal biometry in twin gestations. METHODS: We studied a subset of women with a multiple pregnancy who had been previously included in a randomized clinical trial comparing the effectiveness of 17OHPC and placebo on neonatal outcomes and preterm birth rates. We now compare the individual growth patterns of femur length (FL), head circumference (HC) and abdominal circumference (AC) between fetuses of women who had been randomized to receive either weekly injections of 17OHPC (n=52 women) or placebo (n=58 women) between 16-20 and 36 weeks' gestation. RESULTS: The three biometric variables (FL, HC, AC) developed similarly in fetuses of the 17OHPC-exposed and placebo groups during the second half of pregnancy. Birth weight adjusted for parity and fetal sex was also comparable between both groups. CONCLUSION: The use of 17OHPC has no adverse effect on fetal biometry and birth weight in twins.
Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology 04/2013; · 3.56 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives To assess effectiveness and safety of Foley catheter versus vaginal misoprostol for term induction of labor.Study Design This trial randomly allocated women with singleton term pregnancy to 30-mL Foley catheter or 25-μg vaginal misoprostol tablets. Primary outcome was cesarean delivery rate. Secondary outcomes were maternal and neonatal morbidity and time to birth. Additionally, a systematic review was conducted.Results Fifty-six women were allocated to Foley catheter, 64 to vaginal misoprostol tablets. Cesarean delivery rates did not differ significantly (25% Foley versus 17% misoprostol; relative risk [RR] 1.46, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.72 to 2.94), with more cesarean deliveries due to failure to progress in the Foley group (14% versus 3%; RR 4.57, 95% CI 1.01 to 20.64). Maternal and neonatal outcomes were comparable. Time from induction to birth was longer in the Foley catheter group (36 hours versus 25 hours; p < 0.001). Meta-analysis showed no difference in cesarean delivery rate and reduced vaginal instrumental deliveries and hyperstimulation in the Foley catheter group. Other outcomes were not different.Conclusion Our trial and meta-analysis showed no difference in cesarean delivery rates and less hyperstimulation with fetal heart rate changes and vaginal instrumental deliveries when using Foley catheter, thereby supporting potential advantages of the Foley catheter over misoprostol as ripening agent.
American Journal of Perinatology 04/2013; · 1.57 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction
In preeclampsia (PE), the kidney is one of the major target organs. Growing evidence suggests PE increases the risk of subsequent microalbuminuria and end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Endotheliosis and podocyte changes due to anti-angiogenic factors seem to be salient features of PE. However, it is unknown whether chronic lesions are present in PE patients that could contribute to this increased risk.
We hypothesized that women with PE and young women with chronic hypertension might show similarity in renal lesions. Furthermore, we investigated if the number of podocytes within the kidney is decreased under these different circumstances. Methods We performed a search for renal autopsy-tissues using a nationwide computerized database (PALGA) to collect a unique large cohort of preeclamptic patients (n = 11). Three control groups were included consisting of young women who died during pregnancy without hypertension (n = 25) and non-pregnant controls with (n = 14) and without (n = 13) chronic hypertension. WT-1 staining was used to quantify the number of podocytes. Results Women with PE had MPGN-like lesions without immune-deposits. Tram tracking and podocyte changes were exclusively observed in these patients. Endotheliosis was significantly more present in PE, but sporadically seen in pregnant- and hypertensive controls. Chronic ischaemic lesions were predominantly found in young women with chronic hypertension, and not in PE and other controls. No differences were found in glomerular podocyte number between the study groups.
All women with PE had MPGN-like lesions in their kidneys which was therefore regarded characteristic for PE. In contrast, no chronic lesions were observed in PE which could explain the increased risk of impaired renal function later in life. Interestingly, we demonstrated no difference in podocyte number between study groups. These results might suggest that neither persistent hypertension or dysbalance in angiogenic factors (i.e. preeclampsia) cause an observable change in podocyte number within the kidney.
Pregnancy Hypertension: An International Journal of Women's Cardiovascular Health. 04/2013; 3(2):79.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Induction of labour is a common obstetric procedure. At present, different methods are used for induction of labour in women with an unfavourable cervix. Recently, we showed that in term women with an unfavorable cervix the use of a Foley catheter in comparison with vaginal Prostaglandin E2 gel, results in a comparable vaginal delivery rate. A meta-analysis on the subject indicated lower rates of hyperstimulation, and probably as a sequel fewer cases of postpartum haemorrhage. Misoprostol (PgE1) is another type of prostaglandin frequently used for labour induction, recommended by the international federation of gynaecology and obstetrics (FIGO). Misoprostol can be administered by vaginal, rectal and oral route. There is evidence that oral administration results in less asphyxia and hyperstimulation than vaginal administration. At present, valid comparisons between oral misoprostol and Foley catheter are lacking. Therefore, we propose a randomised controlled trial comparing Foley catheter to oral misoprostol in order to assess safety and cost-effectiveness. METHODS: We plan a multicentre, randomised, controlled, open-label clinical trial among term pregnant women with a vital singleton in cephalic presentation, unfavorable cervix, intact membranes and an indication for induction of labour. After informed consent, women will be randomly allocated by a webbased randomisation system to transcervical Foley catheter or oral misoprostol (50 mcg every 4 hours). The primary outcome will be a composite of complications of uterine hyperstimulation, i.e. post partum haemorrhage and asphyxia. Secondary outcomes are mode of delivery, maternal and neonatal morbidity, costs and women's preference. Serious adverse events such as severe maternal or neonatal morbitity or mortality will be monitored and reported to an independent data safety monitory board. With a sample size of 1860 women we will be able to demonstrate a 5% non-inferiority of the Foley catheter as compared to misoprostol for the composite outcome. DISCUSSION: Worldwide, various methods are being used for labour induction. Results of the proposed trial will contribute to the answer which method of induction of labour is most safe, cost-effective, and patient friendly and will help to construct evidence based guidelines.Trial registration: The Netherlands Trial Register NTR3466, http://www.trialregister.nl.
BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 03/2013; 13(1):67. · 2.52 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine cardiovascular risk factors in women with a history of hypertensive pregnancy disorders at term, 2.5 years after pregnancy. STUDY DESIGN: In a multicenter cohort study in the Netherlands between June 2008 and November 2010, cardiovascular risk factors were compared between women with a history of hypertensive pregnancy disorders at term (HTP cohort, n=306) and women with a history of normotensive pregnancies at term (NTP cohort, n=99). HTP women had participated in a randomized, longitudinal trial assessing the effectiveness of induction of labor in women with hypertensive pregnancy disorders at term. All women were assessed 2.5 years after pregnancy for blood pressure, anthropometrics, glucose, HbA1C, insulin, HOMA score, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, high sensitive CRP and micro-albumin and metabolic syndrome. RESULTS: After a mean follow-up period of 2.5 years, hypertension (HTP, 34%; NTP, 1%; P<.001) and metabolic syndrome (HTP, 25%; NTP, 5%; P<.001) were more prevalent in HTP women compared with NTP women. HTP women had significantly higher systolic and diastolic blood pressure, higher BMI and waist circumference. Glucose, HbA1C, insulin, HOMA score, total cholesterol, triglycerides and high sensitive CRP-levels were significantly higher and HDL cholesterol was significantly lower in HTP women. CONCLUSIONS: In women with a history of hypertensive pregnancy disorders at term hypertension and metabolic syndrome are more common, and they have higher levels of biochemical cardiovascular risk factors 2.5 years after pregnancy.
American journal of obstetrics and gynecology 02/2013; · 3.28 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND
Pre-eclampsia has a clear familial component, suggesting that the condition may be partly attributable to genetic susceptibility. The search for susceptibility genes has led to a drastic increase in the number of published studies associating genetic factors with pre-eclampsia. However, attempts to replicate these findings have yielded inconsistent results. This meta-analysis assessed the pooled effect of each genetic variant that is reproducibly associated with pre-eclampsia.METHODS
Studies that assessed the association between genes and pre-eclampsia were searched in PubMed, Embase and Web of Science. We selected all genetic variants that were significantly associated with pre-eclampsia in an initial study and were subsequently independently reproduced in at least one additional study. All studies that assessed these reproduced variants were then included. The association between genetic variants and pre-eclampsia was calculated at the allele level, and the main measure of effect was a pooled odds ratio in a random-effects model.RESULTSThe literature search yielded 2965 articles, of which 542 investigated genetic associations in pre-eclampsia. We identified 22 replicated genetic variants, of which 7 remained significantly associated with pre-eclampsia following meta-analysis. These variants were in or near the following genes: ACE, CTLA4, F2, FV, LPL and SERPINE1.CONCLUSIONS
This meta-analysis identified seven genetic variants associated with pre-eclampsia. Importantly, many of these variants are also risk factors for developing cardiovascular disease, revealing that pre-eclampsia and cardiovascular disease have shared genetic risk factors. The contribution of the identified genetic variants in the pathogenesis of pre-eclampsia should be the focus of future studies.
Human Reproduction Update 01/2013; · 9.23 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In threatened preterm labor, maintenance tocolysis with nifedipine, after an initial course of tocolysis and corticosteroids for 48 hours, may improve perinatal outcome.
To determine whether maintenance tocolysis with nifedipine will reduce adverse perinatal outcomes due to premature birth.
APOSTEL-II (Assessment of Perinatal Outcome with Sustained Tocolysis in Early Labor) is a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial performed in 11 perinatal units including all tertiary centers in The Netherlands. From June 2008 to February 2010, women with threatened preterm labor between 26 weeks (plus 0 days) and 32 weeks (plus 2 days) gestation, who had not delivered after 48 hours of tocolysis and a completed course of corticosteroids, were enrolled. Surviving infants were followed up until 6 months after birth (ended August 2010).
Randomization assigned 406 women to maintenance tocolysis with nifedipine orally (80 mg/d; n = 201) or placebo (n = 205) for 12 days. Assigned treatment was masked from investigators, participants, clinicians, and research nurses.
Primary outcome was a composite of adverse perinatal outcomes (perinatal death, chronic lung disease, neonatal sepsis, intraventricular hemorrhage >grade 2, periventricular leukomalacia >grade 1, or necrotizing enterocolitis). Analyses were completed on an intention-to-treat basis.
Mean (SD) gestational age at randomization was 29.2 (1.7) weeks for both groups. Adverse perinatal outcome was not significantly different between groups: 11.9% (24/201; 95% CI, 7.5%-16.4%) for nifedipine vs 13.7% (28/205; 95% CI, 9.0%-18.4%) for placebo (relative risk, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.53-1.45).
In patients with threatened preterm labor, nifedipine-maintained tocolysis did not result in a statistically significant reduction in adverse perinatal outcomes when compared with placebo. Although the lower than anticipated rate of adverse perinatal outcomes in the control group indicates that a benefit of nifedipine cannot completely be excluded, its use for maintenance tocolysis does not appear beneficial at this time.
trialregister.nl Identifier: NTR1336.
JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association 01/2013; 309(1):41-7. · 29.98 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective. We aim to investigate methods and use of cervical ripening in women without and with a prior cesarean delivery in The Netherlands. Methods. In 2010, we conducted a postal survey in all Dutch hospitals with a labor ward. One gynecologist per hospital was addressed and was asked to respond on behalf of the staff. The questionnaire contained 31 questions concerning cervical ripening and induction of labor. We compared this survey to a similar Dutch survey conducted in 2006. Results. Response rate was 78% (70/92 hospitals). In women without a prior cesarean and in need of cervical ripening, all hospitals (100%) applied prostaglandins (either E1 or E2). In women with a prior cesarean, 21.4% of the hospitals performed an elective cesarean section if delivery was indicated (26.0% in 2006). In case of cervical ripening, 72.7% used mechanical methods (49.1% in 2006), 20.0% used prostaglandins (40.4% in 2006), 3.6% used a combination of prostaglandins and mechanical methods, and 3.6% used membrane-sweeping or oxytocin. Conclusions. In 2010, in The Netherlands, prostaglandins and Foley catheters were the preferred methods for cervical ripening in women without and with a prior cesarean, respectively. Use of mechanical methods in women with a prior cesarean has increased rapidly between 2006 and 2010, corresponding with decreasing use of prostaglandins and elective repeat cesarean sections.
Obstetrics and Gynecology International 01/2013; 2013:745159.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the association between overweight and severe acute maternal morbidity (SAMM) in a low-risk pregnant population.
Nationwide case-control study.
The Netherlands, august 2004 to august 2006.
1567 cases from initially primary care and 2994 women from primary care practices as controls, out of 371 012 women delivering in the Netherlands during the study period.
Cases were women with SAMM obtained from a nationwide prospective study. All women in this cohort who initially had low-risk pregnancies were compared with low-risk women without SAMM to calculate odd ratios (ORs) to develop SAMM by body mass index (BMI) category. We divided body mass index in three overweight categories and calculated the ORs (95% CI) of total SAMM and per specific endpoint by logistic regression, with normal weight as reference. We adjusted for age, parity and socio-economic status.
SAMM, defined as Intensive Care Unit (ICU)-admission, Uterine Rupture, Eclampsia or Major Obstetric Haemorrhage (MOH).
SAMM was reported in 1567 cases which started as low-risk pregnancies. BMI was available in 1097 (70.0%) cases and 2994 control subjects were included. Analysis showed a dose response relation for overweight (aOR, 1.3; 95% CI, 1.0-1.5), obese (aOR, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.1-1.9) and morbidly obese (aOR, 2.1; 95% CI, 1.3-3.2) women to develop SAMM compared to normal weight. Sub analysis showed the same dose response relation for ICU-admission, Uterine Rupture and Eclampsia. We found no association for MOH.
Overweight without pre-existent co-morbidity is an important risk-indicator for developing SAMM. This risk increases with an increasing body mass index.
PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(9):e74494. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies assessing biochemical cardiovascular risk factors in women with previous hypertensive pregnancy disorders and women with previous normotensive pregnancies. Data were collected from PubMed and EMBASE (from inception to February 28, 2011) supplemented by manual searches of bibliographies. Included were cohort studies and case-control studies assessing biochemical cardiovascular risk factors in women with previous hypertensive pregnancy disorders compared with women with previous normotensive pregnancies. Of 2573 studies reviewed for eligibility, quality, and data extraction, 22 were included in the review, of which 15 could be meta-analyzed. The pooled mean differences for the outcomes of interest were 0.17 mmol/L (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.08-0.25 mmol/L) for glucose (10 studies), 3.46 mU/mL (95% CI, 2.34-4.58 mU/mL) for insulin (5 studies), 0.13 mmol/L (95% CI, 0.05-0.21) for triglycerides (10 studies), 0.22 mmol/L (95% CI, 0.11-0.33 mmol/L) for total cholesterol (11 studies), -0.11 mmol/L (95% CI, -0.18 to -0.04 mmol/L) for high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (10 studies), and 0.21 mmol/L (95% CI, 0.10-0.32) for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (9 studies), all in the disadvantage in women with previous hypertensive pregnancy disorders. Analyses for preeclampsia alone showed similar results. Continued Learning Objectives: After completing this CME activity, physicians should be better able to assess the long-term cardiovascular consequences after hypertensive pregnancy disorders, evaluate and interpret the evidence regarding biochemical cardiovascular risk factor assessment after pregnancy, and counsel women with a history of hypertensive pregnancy disorders as to the effectiveness of cardiovascular risk factor assessment in the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Conclusions: Women with previous hypertensive pregnancy disorders have higher glucose, insulin, triglycerides, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels measured after pregnancy compared with women with previous normotensive pregnancies. These biochemical cardiovascular risk factors may identify women who will benefit from primary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Target Audience: Obstetricians and gynecologists, family physicians.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Preeclampsia is a significant cause of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality worldwide. A clinically useful screening test that can predict development of preeclampsia at an early stage is urgently needed. The detection of podocyturia by immunohistochemistry after cell culture has been noted as a reliable marker for preeclampsia. However, this method is laborious and carries the risk of cell culture contamination. The aim of this study was to investigate the diagnostic value of quantitative polymerase chain reaction as a rapid method to detect preeclampsia. Clean-catch urine samples were collected from preeclamptic (n=35), healthy pregnant (n=34), and healthy nonpregnant (n=12) women. Furthermore, a control group of women with gestational hypertension (n=5) was included. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis was performed for podocyte-specific markers. Receiver operating characteristic curve analyses were performed. Significantly elevated mRNA levels of nephrin, podocin, and vascular endothelial growth factor were detected in preeclamptic women compared with healthy pregnant and healthy nonpregnant controls. In addition, significantly elevated levels of nephrin mRNA were detected in urine of preeclamptic women compared with women with gestational hypertension. A positive correlation (ρ=0.82; P<0.0001) was observed between nephrin and vascular endothelial growth factor mRNA levels in preeclamptic women. Receiver operating characteristic curve analyses demonstrated a strong ability of this method to discriminate between the different study groups. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis of podocyte-specific molecules in urine samples is a rapid and reliable method to quantify podocyturia. We demonstrate that this method distinguishes preeclamptic patients from healthy controls and women with gestational hypertension. This method may be a tool for the detection of preeclampsia at an earlier stage, thereby preventing maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The evidence for the management of near term prelabor rupture of membranes is poor. From January 2007 until September 2009, we performed the PPROM Expectant Management versus Induction of Labor (PPROMEXIL) trial. In this trial, we showed that in women with preterm prelabor rupture of membranes (PPROM), the incidence of neonatal sepsis was low, and the induction of labor (IoL) did not reduce this risk. Because the PPROMEXIL trial was underpowered and because of a lower-than-expected incidence of neonatal sepsis, we performed a second trial (PPROMEXIL-2), aiming to randomize 200 patients to improve the evidence in near-term PPROM.
In a nationwide multicenter study, nonlaboring women with PPROM between 34 and 37 weeks' gestational age were eligible for inclusion. Patients were randomized to IoL or expectant management (EM). The primary outcome measure was neonatal sepsis.
From December 2009 until January 2011, we randomized 100 women to IoL and 95 to EM. Neonatal sepsis was seen in 3 neonates (3.0%) in the IoL-group versus 4 neonates (4.1%) in the EM group (relative risk, 0.74; 95% confidence interval, 0.17-3.2). One of the sepsis cases in the IoL group resulted in neonatal death because of asphyxia. There were no significant differences in secondary outcomes.
The risk of neonatal sepsis after PPROM near term is low. Induction of labor does not reduce this risk.
American journal of obstetrics and gynecology 07/2012; 207(4):276.e1-276.e10. · 3.28 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pain relief during labour is a topic of major interest in the Netherlands. Epidural analgesia is considered to be the most effective method of pain relief and recommended as first choice. However its uptake by pregnant women is limited compared to other western countries, partly as a result of non-availability due to logistic problems. Remifentanil, a synthetic opioid, is very suitable for patient controlled analgesia. Recent studies show that epidural analgesia is superior to remifentanil patient controlled analgesia in terms of pain intensity score; however there was no difference in satisfaction with pain relief between both treatments.
The proposed study is a multicentre randomized controlled study that assesses the cost-effectiveness of remifentanil patient controlled analgesia compared to epidural analgesia. We hypothesize that remifentanil patient controlled analgesia is as effective in improving pain appreciation scores as epidural analgesia, with lower costs and easier achievement of 24 hours availability of pain relief for women in labour and efficient pain relief for those with a contraindication for epidural analgesia.Eligible women will be informed about the study and randomized before active labour has started. Women will be randomly allocated to a strategy based on epidural analgesia or on remifentanil patient controlled analgesia when they request pain relief during labour. Primary outcome is the pain appreciation score, i.e. satisfaction with pain relief.Secondary outcome parameters are costs, patient satisfaction, pain scores (pain-intensity), mode of delivery and maternal and neonatal side effects.The economic analysis will be performed from a short-term healthcare perspective. For both strategies the cost of perinatal care for mother and child, starting at the onset of labour and ending ten days after delivery, will be registered and compared.
This study, considering cost effectiveness of remifentanil as first choice analgesia versus epidural analgesia, could strongly improve the care for 180.000 women, giving birth in the Netherlands yearly by giving them access to pain relief during labour, 24 hours a day.
Dutch Trial Register NTR2551, http://www.trialregister.nl.
BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 07/2012; 12:63. · 2.52 Impact Factor