Kirsten J F Teunissen

Maastricht University, Maestricht, Limburg, Netherlands

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Publications (6)21.69 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Vitamin K's recommended dietary allowance (RDA) is based on the hepatic requirement for clotting factor synthesis, but substantial concentrations of undercarboxylated extra-hepatic Gla-proteins are found in the circulation of non-supplemented individuals. This suggests that vitamin K intake above the RDA is required for an optimal extra-hepatic vitamin K status. Circulating uncarboxylated osteocalcin (ucOC) and desphospho-uncarboxylated matrix Gla-protein (dp-ucMGP) are considered markers of the vitamin K status in bone and the vasculature, respectively. We measured these markers in 896 samples of healthy volunteers and defined target groups for vitamin K supplementation based on increased levels indicative of tissue-specific vitamin K deficiency. We studied the response to vitamin K supplements at different states of vitamin K deficiency by measuring the circulating dp-ucMGP level in samples from two short-term trials on menaquinone-7 (MK-7, vitamin K2) supplementation in 42 children and 68 adults. Children had high ucOC levels (3.4-96.9 ng ml(-1)); other age groups had values in the range of 1.5-5.0 ng ml(-1). From the age of 40 years, dp-ucMGP levels gradually increased. Children and adults with more pronounced vitamin K deficiency gave the highest responses to MK-7 supplementation. Children and adults above 40 years showed the largest tissue-specific vitamin deficiency and accordingly may benefit from MK-7 supplementation to improve their extra-hepatic vitamin K status.
    Food & function. 12/2013;
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    06/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: Vitamin K is required for the carboxylation of Gla-proteins in the liver (coagulation factors) and extra-hepatic tissues, such as bone (osteocalcin, OC), and arterial wall (matrix Gla-protein, MGP). Although the coagulation factors are essentially fully carboxylated under normal conditions, 10-40 % of OC and MGP remains undercarboxylated. We were therefore interested to study the dose-response effects of extra intake of menaquinones on the carboxylation of the extra-hepatic Gla-proteins. A total of forty-two healthy Dutch men and women aged between 18 and 45 years were randomised into seven groups to receive: placebo capsules or menaquinone-7 (MK-7) capsules at a daily dose of 10, 20, 45, 90, 180 or 360 μg. Circulating uncarboxylated OC (ucOC), carboxylated OC (cOC) and desphospho-uncarboxylated MGP were measured by ELISA. The ucOC:cOC ratio was calculated from circulating ucOC and cOC values. Endogenous thrombin potential and peak height were determined by calibrated automated thrombography. To increase the statistical power, we collapsed the treatment groups into three dosage groups: placebo, low-dose supplementation (doses below RDA, Commission Directive 2008/100/EC), and high-dose supplementation (doses around RDA, Commission Directive 2008/100/EC). MK-7 supplementation at doses in the order of the RDA (Commission Directive 2008/100/EC) increased the carboxylation of circulating OC and MGP. No adverse effects on thrombin generation were observed. Extra MK-7 intake at nutritional doses around the RDA (Commission Directive 2008/100/EC) improved the carboxylation of the extra-hepatic vitamin K-dependent proteins. Whether this improvement contributes to public health, i.e. increasing the protection against age-related diseases needs further investigation in specifically designed intervention trials.
    The British journal of nutrition 01/2012; · 3.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Vitamin K is a cofactor in the production of blood coagulation factors (in the liver), osteocalcin (in bone), and matrix Gla protein (cartilage and vessel wall). Accumulating evidence suggests that for optimal bone and vascular health, relatively high intakes of vitamin K are required. The synthetic short-chain vitamin K(1) is commonly used in food supplements, but recently the natural long-chain menaquinone-7 (MK-7) has also become available as an over-the-counter (OTC) supplement. The purpose of this paper was to compare in healthy volunteers the absorption and efficacy of K(1) and MK-7. Serum vitamin K species were used as a marker for absorption and osteocalcin carboxylation as a marker for activity. Both K(1) and MK-7 were absorbed well, with peak serum concentrations at 4 hours after intake. A major difference between the 2 vitamin K species is the very long half-life time of MK-7, resulting in much more stable serum levels, and accumulation of MK-7 to higher levels (7- to 8-fold) during prolonged intake. MK-7 induced more complete carboxylation of osteocalcin, and hematologists should be aware that preparations supplying 50 mug/d or more of MK-7 may interfere with oral anticoagulant treatment in a clinically relevant way.
    Blood 05/2007; 109(8):3279-83. · 9.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Matrix gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla) protein (MGP), a vitamin K-dependent protein, is a potent in vivo inhibitor of arterial calcification. We hypothesized that low endogenous production of MGP and impaired carboxylation of MGP may contribute to the development or the progression of vascular disease. Novel conformation-specific antibodies against MGP were used for immunohistochemistry of healthy and sclerotic arteries. In healthy arteries, MGP was mainly displayed around the elastin fibers in the tunica media. The staining colocalized with that for carboxylated MGP, whereas undercarboxylated MGP (ucMGP) was not detected. In atherosclerotic arteries, ucMGP was found in the intima, where it was associated with vesicular structures. In Mönckeberg's sclerosis of the media, ucMGP was localized around all areas of calcification. The results indicate that ucMGP is strongly associated with vascular calcification of different etiologies. In a separate study, serum MGP concentrations in a cohort of 172 subjects who had undergone percutaneous coronary intervention were significantly reduced compared with an apparently healthy population. These data show that impaired carboxylation of MGP is associated with intimal and medial vascular calcification and suggest the essentiality of the vitamin K modification to the function of MGP as an inhibitor of ectopic calcification.
    Arteriosclerosis Thrombosis and Vascular Biology 09/2005; 25(8):1629-33. · 6.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Matrix gammacarboxyglutamate (Gla)-protein (MGP) is a strong inhibitor of soft tissue calcification and is mainly produced by chondrocytes and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). MGP-deficient mice have extensive calcifications of cartilage and arteries leading to osteopenia, fractures and blood vessel ruptures. Promotor polymorphisms resulting in decreased expression levels were found to be associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular disease in humans. Recently, an ELISA-based assay has become available with which MGP may be detected in the circulation. The principle of the test kit is that of a competitive immunoassay using a monoclonal antibody against MGP bound to the microtiter plate. Here, we report on a critical evaluation of this assay and its potential diagnostic utility in diseases associated with the degeneration of the arterial vessel wall and cartilage. The biochemical performance of the kit is satisfactory, and significant differences were found between a number of patient cohorts and the reference population. Serum MGP concentrations were significantly decreased in patients with angina pectoris and in various cartilage diseases. The assay allows comparison of groups and may become a suitable marker for risk assessment or diagnosis in cardiovascular disease and osteoarthritis.
    Clinica Chimica Acta 02/2005; 351(1-2):131-8. · 2.85 Impact Factor