Kirk D Miller

National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, United States

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Publications (8)51.48 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: To examine the potential contribution of the thymus to CD4+ T-lymphocyte increases in HIV-infected patients receiving intermittent interleukin-2 (IL-2) therapy. Fifteen HIV-infected patients treated with antiretroviral regimens who were enrolled in a study of intermittent IL-2 therapy and were willing to undergo serial thymic computed tomography (CT) were prospectively studied. Thymic CT was performed before and approximately 6 and 12-17 months after intermittent IL-2 therapy was started. Scans were graded in a blinded manner. Changes in lymphocyte subpopulations were determined by flow cytometry. Statistically significant increases in CD4+ T lymphocytes occurred with IL-2 administration, with a preferential increase in naive relative to memory CD4+ T cells. Despite this increase in naive CD4+ T cells, overall there was a modest decrease in thymic volume observed during the study period. No correlation was found between changes in thymic volume indices and total, naive, or memory CD4+ T-lymphocyte counts. These findings demonstrate that the profound CD4+ T-lymphocyte increases seen with intermittent IL-2 administration are not associated with increases in thymic volume and more likely are due to peripheral expansion rather than increased thymic output.
    JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 12/2003; 34(3):299-303. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Osteonecrosis has been reported to occur occasionally among HIV-infected patients. The diagnosis of symptomatic osteonecrosis of the hip in two of the authors' patients, together with reports from community physicians, raised a concern that the prevalence of osteonecrosis is increasing. To determine the prevalence of osteonecrosis of the hip in asymptomatic HIV-infected patients and to identify potential risk factors associated with osteonecrosis. Survey and comparison study. The Clinical Center of the U.S. National Institutes of Health. 339 asymptomatic HIV-infected adults (of 364 asked to participate) and 118 age- and sex-matched HIV-negative volunteers enrolled between 1 June and 15 December 1999. Osteonecrosis of the hip, as documented by magnetic resonance imaging. Data from clinic records and a patient questionnaire administered before magnetic resonance imaging were used in an analysis of risk factors. A subset of patients was evaluated for hypercoagulable state. Fifteen (4.4% [95% CI, 2.5% to 7.2%]) of 339 HIV-infected participants had osteonecrosis lesions on magnetic resonance imaging, and no HIV-negative participants had similar lesions. Among HIV-infected participants, osteonecrosis occurred more frequently in those who used systemic corticosteroids, lipid-lowering agents, or testosterone; those who exercised routinely by bodybuilding; and those who had detectable levels of anticardiolipin antibodies. Patients infected with HIV have an unexpectedly high occurrence of osteonecrosis of the hip. Although screening asymptomatic patients is not warranted, HIV-infected patients with persistent groin or hip pain should be evaluated for this debilitating complication.
    Annals of internal medicine 08/2002; 137(1):17-25. · 13.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We retrospectively analyzed 155 urine cytology samples (78 from patients treated with indinavir; 77, no indinavir) from 90 HIV+ patients to evaluate possible association between human polyomavirus and hematuria and to describe indinavir-associated urinary cytologic findings. The CD4 count also was recorded. Variables studied included the presence of cellular viral changes consistent with polyomavirus infection (PVCs), microscopic hematuria, multinucleated cells, indinavir crystals, neutrophils, and eosinophils. Twenty-two samples (15.8%) from patients with CD4 counts of more than 200/microL (>200 x 10(6)/L) showed PVCs. Multinucleated cells, of presumed histiocytic origin based on morphologic features and selective immunocytochemical findings, were present in a higher percentage of samples from indinavir-treated patients. Neutrophils were present in a higher percentage of indinavir-treated patients. Indinavir crystals were identified in 9 samples (12%) from patients receiving indinavir The lower percentage of PVCs in HIV+ patients with high CD4 counts likely represents an indirect antipolyomavirus indinavir effect by boosting immunity. Multinucleated cells (presumably histiocytic) and acute inflammation are associated with indinavir therapy. Indinavir crystals have a characteristic fan or circular lamellate appearance. Because indinavir crystals may be associated with genitourinary disease, recognizing and reporting them is clinically relevant in HIV+ patients.
    American Journal of Clinical Pathology 06/2002; 117(6):922-6. · 2.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of the present study was to characterize the genitourinary syndromes that accompany indinavir-associated pyuria. Of 23 indinavir-treated patients with persistent pyuria, 4 had isolated interstitial nephritis, 10 had both interstitial nephritis and urothelial inflammation, 7 had isolated urothelial inflammation, and 2 had pyuria with nonspecific urinary tract inflammation. A total of 21 patients had multinucleated histiocytes identified by cytologic testing of urine specimens. Urine abnormalities resolved in all 20 patients who stopped receiving indinavir therapy. Pyuria continued in the 3 patients who continued receiving indinavir. Six patients had elevated serum creatinine levels, which returned to baseline levels when indinavir was discontinued. In conclusion, indinavir-associated pyuria was frequently associated with evidence of interstitial nephritis and/or urothelial inflammation, multinucleated histiocytes were commonly present in urine specimens, and cessation of indinavir therapy was associated with prompt resolution of urine abnormalities.
    Clinical Infectious Diseases 05/2002; 34(8):1122-8. · 9.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: To determine if physical examination can identify avascular necrosis of the hip (AVN) in asymptomatic HIV-infected patients.Design: Prospective, blinded population studyResults: Ten of the 176 patients were positive for AVN by MRI. Four subjects had unilateral disease and six had bilateral disease. Five hips (1.4%) in four patients were indeterminate. We evaluated physical examination maneuvers both singly and in combination. Tests done singly generally provided a higher degree of specificity (67-92%) but sensitivities were lower (0-50%) with all p-values ≥0.08. Positive predictive values based on physical exam, were <17% and negative predictive values were >90% for any single test. Combining all tests gave a high sensitivity (88%) and negative predictive value (98%), but low specificity (34%) and positive predictive value (6%) with p = 0.10. Only two of 16 hips with positive MRI findings showed no abnormalities when all tests were combinedConclusions: This study establishes the limited usefulness of a detailed physical examination of the hip early in the course of AVN. Patients who test negative on physical exam are unlikely to have AVN positive by MRI. Positive findings on physical examination of the hip may help identify patients who need further evaluation by MRI based on overall clinical suspicion.
    Journal of Back and Musculoskeletal Rehabilitation 01/2002; 16(4):135-9. · 0.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The ability of IL-2 to induce expansion of the CD4+ T lymphocyte pool has made it the most studied cytokine in the treatment of HIV infection. The majority of trials have used an empirical regimen of 5-day IL-2 cycles given every 8 weeks—a regimen based upon early pharmacodynamic studies and patient preference. To better define optimal duration and frequency of cycles, a randomized trial was conducted in which patients who received this “standard” regimen were compared to patients who received cycles of variable duration (based on individual patterns of cell cycle progression) and to patients who received cycles of variable frequency (based on individual CD4+ T lymphocyte responses to previous cycles). Twenty-two patients with HIV-1 infection and CD4+ T lymphocyte counts > 200 cells/mm3 were randomized to one of three treatment groups for 32 weeks of study. Eight participants received four 5-day IL-2 cycles (controls) every 8 weeks; 7 participants received four cycles of longer duration (mean 7.7-days); and 7 participants received an increased frequency of 5-day cycles (every 4.1 weeks on average). All three groups experienced significant increases in mean CD4+ T lymphocytes. However, there were no statistically significant differences in CD4+ T lymphocyte increases between the group that received longer cycles (median increase 239 cells/mm3, P = 0.78) or between the group that received more frequent cycles (median increase 511 cells/mm3, P = 0.54) and the control group (median 284 cells/mm3). HIV-1 viral loads decreased during the study period in all three groups. Our inability to demonstrate a significant advantage of increased frequency or duration of IL-2 administration provides corroborating experimental evidence for the use of an IL-2 regimen consisting of 5-day cycles administered no more frequently than every 8 weeks in future clinical trials aimed at expanding the CD4+ T lymphocyte pool.
    Clinical Immunology 04/2001; · 3.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Identifying the immunologic and virologic consequences of discontinuing antiretroviral therapy in HIV-infected patients is of major importance in developing long-term treatment strategies for patients with HIV-1 infection. We designed a trial to characterize these parameters after interruption of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in patients who had maintained prolonged viral suppression on antiretroviral drugs. Eighteen patients with CD4+ T cell counts ≥ 350 cells/μl and viral load below the limits of detection for ≥1 year while on HAART were enrolled prospectively in a trial in which HAART was discontinued. Twelve of these patients had received prior IL-2 therapy and had low frequencies of resting, latently infected CD4 cells. Viral load relapse to >50 copies/ml occurred in all 18 patients independent of prior IL-2 treatment, beginning most commonly during weeks 2–3 after cessation of HAART. The mean relapse rate constant was 0.45 (0.20 log10 copies) day−1, which was very similar to the mean viral clearance rate constant after drug resumption of 0.35 (0.15 log10 copies) day−1 (P = 0.28). One patient experienced a relapse delay to week 7. All patients except one experienced a relapse burden to >5,000 RNA copies/ml. Ex vivo labeling with BrdUrd showed that CD4 and CD8 cell turnover increased after withdrawal of HAART and correlated with viral load whereas lymphocyte turnover decreased after reinitiation of drug treatment. Virologic relapse occurs rapidly in patients who discontinue suppressive drug therapy, even in patients with a markedly diminished pool of resting, latently infected CD4+ T cells.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 12/1999; 96(26):15109-15114. · 9.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: To evaluate changes in architecture, viral RNA, and viral protein over 6 months in lymph nodes from retroviral-naïve HIV-infected persons before and after commencing highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Methods: Nine antiretroviral-naïve HIV-infected persons had lymph nodes excised at baseline and at 2 and 6-8 months after beginning a four-drug combination regimen containing zidovudine, lamivudine, nevirapine, and indinavir. Two patients had AIDS. Lymph nodes were examined by immunohistochemical staining for Gag p24 HIV, CD3, CD21, CD20, HAM 56, and Ki67 antigens and by in-situ hybridization (ISH) for HIV RNA and H3-histone RNA. Results: Eight of nine baseline lymph nodes showed follicular hyperplasia and germinal center and paracortical mononuclear cell activation. At 2 months, the lymph nodes from seven patients, including the AIDS patients, showed more follicular hyperplasia and activation than their baseline specimens but with decreased mononuclear cell activation. By 6 months, seven lymph nodes were less hyperplastic and activated than their corresponding 2 month specimens. Combined ISH/immunohistochemical staining of baseline lymph nodes revealed productively infected T (CD3) and B (CD20) cells and macrophages (HAM56+). HIV RNA-positive mononuclear cells were infrequent at 2 months, and rare at 6 months. HIV RNA was still associated with follicular dendritic cells (FDC) at 2 months, but not at 6 months. HIV p24-positive antigen in germinal centers persisted through all 6, and the one 8 month specimens. The baseline lymph nodes from one of the AIDS patients was involuted and T cell depleted, whereas the follow-up lymph nodes were hyperplastic with normal T cell levels. Conclusion: Follicular hyperplasia and cell activation, possibly caused by persistent viral protein in germinal centers, may help explain why HIV viremia rebounds so rapidly after the interruption of HAART. Restoration of architecture may follow the treatment of patients with AIDS who initially had involuted and CD4 cell-depleted lymph nodes.
    AIDS 11/1999; 13(16):2219-2229. · 6.41 Impact Factor