ABSTRACT: To evaluate the relationships between optic disc measurements, obtained by an optical coherence tomograph and a confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope, and myopia.
One hundred thirty-three eyes from 133 healthy subjects with mean spherical equivalent -6.0 +/- 4.2 D (range, -13.13 to +3.25 D) were analyzed. Optic disc measurements including disc area, rim area, cup area, cup-to-disc area, and vertical and horizontal ratios were obtained with an optical coherence tomograph (StratusOCT; Carl Zeiss Meditec Inc., Dublin, CA) and a confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope (Heidelberg Retina Tomograph, HRT 3; Heidelberg Engineering, GmbH, Dossenheim, Germany). The modified axial length method derived from prior published work was used to correct the OCT measurements for ocular magnification. Bland-Altman plots were used to evaluate the agreement for each optic disc parameter. Associations between optic disc area and axial length/spherical equivalent were evaluated by linear regression analysis.
Disc area increased with the axial length/negative spherical equivalent in the HRT and the corrected OCT measurements although opposite directions of associations were found when the OCT measurements were not corrected for magnification. The difference of the corrected OCT and HRT disc area (corrected OCT disc area minus HRT disc area) was correlated with the axial length (r = 0.195, P = 0.025). When the ametropia was limited to -8.0 to +4.0 D, the correlations became insignificant in the HRT. Using the corrected OCT measurements, disc area, rim area, and cup area, cup-to-disc area, and cup-to-disc horizontal and vertical ratios were significantly larger than those measured by the HRT, with a span of 95% limits of agreement at 1.99, 1.33, and 1.86 mm(2) for the areas, 0.34, 0.53, and 0.58 for the ratios, respectively.
While optic disc area generally increased with the axial length and myopic refraction, the HRT measurements demonstrated that optic disc size was largely independent of axial length and refractive error between -8 and +4 D. OCT may overestimate optic disc size in myopic eyes and results in poor agreement between the two instruments.
Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science 08/2007; 48(7):3178-83. · 3.60 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: To investigate the relationship between myopia and macular thickness, as measured by optical coherence tomography.
A total of 143 normal subjects comprising 80 eyes with high myopia (spherical equivalent [SE] < -6.0 D), 37 eyes with low to moderate myopia (SE between -6.0 and -0.5 D), and 26 nonmyopic eyes (SE > -0.5 D) were analyzed in this cross-sectional study. Total average, foveal, and inner and outer average macular thicknesses measured by the StratusOCT (Carl Zeiss Meditec Inc., Dublin, CA) were compared among the three diagnostic groups. Associations between macular thickness and refractive error/axial length were evaluated by linear regression analysis.
The minimum foveal and average foveal (1-mm ring on the OCT retinal thickness map) thicknesses were significantly greater, and the outer ring macular (3-6-mm) thicknesses significantly lower in the high myopic eyes than in the low to moderate myopic and nonmyopic eyes. No significant difference was found in the inner ring (1-3-mm) macular thickness measurements among the groups. There was a positive correlation between the axial length and the average foveal thickness (r = 0.374, P < 0.001). Negative correlations were found between axial length and the average outer ring macular thickness (r= -0.471, P < 0.001) and total average macular thickness (r= -0.311, P < 0.001).
Retinal thickness is related to refractive error/axial length in normal subjects with regional variations in correlation within the 6-mm macular region. Analysis of macular thickness in the evaluation of macular diseases and glaucoma should be interpreted only in the context of refractive errors and the location of measurement.
Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science 02/2007; 48(1):376-82. · 3.60 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: To evaluate the relationship between retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness measured by optical coherence tomography (OCT) and the axial length/refractive error of the eye.
A total of 115 eyes of 115 healthy subjects, comprising 75 eyes with high myopia (spherical equivalent [SE] < -6.0 D) and 40 eyes with low to moderate myopia (SE between -6.0 D and -0.5D), were analyzed in this cross-sectional study. Total average and mean clock hour RNFL thicknesses were measured by OCT and compared between the two myopia groups. Associations between RNFL measurements and axial length and spherical equivalent were evaluated by linear regression analysis.
The RNFL measurements were significantly lower in the high myopia group compared with those of the low-to-moderate myopia group at 12, 1, and 7 o'clock (right eye orientation). Apart from the temporal clock hours, significant correlations were evident between RNFL measurements and the axial length and spherical equivalent. The average RNFL thickness decreased with increasing axial length (r = -0.314, P = 0.001) and negative refractive power (r = 0.291, P = 0.002). A significant proportion of myopic eyes were classified as outside normal limits, with reference to the normative database. The most frequently abnormal sector was at 2 o'clock, where 16.5% of myopic eyes were outside normal limits.
RNFL measurements vary with the axial length/refractive error of the eye. Analysis of RNFL thickness in the evaluation of glaucoma should always be interpreted with reference to the refractive status. Although the normative database provided by OCT has been helpful in identifying ocular diseases involving the RNFL, it may not be reliable in the analysis of myopic eyes.
Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science 12/2006; 47(12):5171-6. · 3.60 Impact Factor