ABSTRACT: Erectile dysfunction (ED) is common among elderly men and patients suffering from chronic diseases, the latter probably including also HIV infection. No studies, however, compared the prevalence of ED in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected individuals using the international index of erectile function (IIEF-15).
The aim of this study is to compare ED prevalence in young to middle-aged men with and without HIV infection using the IIEF-15 questionnaire.
We conducted a cross-sectional, observational, controlled study on 444 HIV-infected men and 71 HIV-uninfected men.
The IIEF-15 questionnaire was used to assess ED. A cutoff score of ≤25 of the erectile domain was used to diagnose ED. Serum testosterone, demographic, and anthropometric (weight, height, and body mass index [BMI]) characteristics were obtained from all participants. Statistics included the T-test, the Fisher's test, univariable and multivariable logistic regression, and univariate and multivariate Spearman's correlation analysis.
The HIV-uninfected group was significantly younger than the HIV-infected group and presented a higher BMI (P < 0.001). The prevalence of mild, moderate, and severe ED was higher in HIV-infected men than in HIV-uninfected men of all decades of age. In univariate analysis, HIV infection was associated with ED (odds ratio [OR] = 34.19, P < 0.001). In multivariable logistic regression analysis, HIV infection remained the strongest predictors of ED (OR = 42.26, P < 0.001) followed by hypogonadism, after adjusting for age and BMI.
This study demonstrates a clear association between ED and HIV infection, after adjusting for age and BMI. Other than HIV infection, hypogonadism was associated with ED. In addition, the prevalence of ED was higher in HIV-infected men than in HIV-uninfected men, in all decades of age. The early onset of ED in HIV-infected men could be considered a peculiar clinical hallmark of HIV and confirms precocious aging in these patients. ED should be of concern to clinicians when managing HIV-infected men even if the latter are young or middle aged.
Journal of Sexual Medicine 04/2012; 9(7):1923-30. · 3.55 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Morphological abnormalities (lipoatrophy and central fat accumulation) and metabolic changes (dyslipidaemia and glucose regulation impairment) have emerged as components of lipodystrophy and as major tolerability issues with long-term use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in HIV-positive patients. Protease inhibitors (PIs) are recognized as having the greatest impact in terms of metabolic complications, followed by nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, while the non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) have the least impact. In particular, regimens based on the NNRTI nevirapine have been shown to achieve significant metabolic benefits and may help to improve dyslipidaemia. Improvements in body shape changes associated with lipodystrophy have also been reported when nevirapine replaced a PI in long-term triple therapy.
The objective of this cross-sectional observational ('real-world') study was to investigate the effect of three HAART regimens plus stable nevirapine therapy on morphological and metabolic components of lipodystrophy in HIV-infected patients.
Consecutive patients (aged >18 years) with serologically documented HIV infection, who had received HAART for at least 2 years and who had been diagnosed with lipodystrophy, were followed up as outpatients at the metabolic clinic of the University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Modena, Italy. Patients received stable nevirapine therapy plus fixed-dose combinations of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate plus emtricitabine (Truvada(®); TVD), zidovudine plus lamivudine (3TC) [Combivir(®); CBV], or abacavir plus lamivudine (Kivexa(®); KVX). Multivariate regression analyses were performed to analyse predictors of four components of lipodystrophy: lipoatrophy using leg fat mass measured by dual-emission x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), fat accumulation using waist circumference, dyslipidaemia using apolipoprotein (Apo)B/ApoA1 ratio, and glucose intolerance using the Homeostasis Model Assessment for Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR).
Overall, 101 patients were enrolled (TVD group = 61, CBV group = 20, KVX group = 20); 191 observations were analysed. Male sex was associated with reduced leg fat mass, while age and body mass index (BMI) were associated with increased leg fat mass (all p < 0.05). Leg fat mass and male sex were associated with increased waist circumference (p < 0.001 for both). Leg fat mass predicted reduced ApoB/ApoA1 ratio, while age and BMI predicted increased ApoB/ApoA1 ratio (all p < 0.05). BMI predicted HOMA-IR increase (p = 0.0017). No differences in lipoatrophy, central fat accumulation, dyslipidaemia or glucose metabolism were observed among any of the three different nevirapine plus nucleoside backbone groups (TVD, CBV or KVX).
HAART including nevirapine has a limited impact on components of lipodystrophy in patients with HIV infection. Further studies are needed to verify if nevirapine overcomes the expected distinct lipodystrophy risk profile associated with different nucleoside backbone therapies.
Clinical Drug Investigation 09/2011; 31(11):759-67. · 1.82 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: The penis has been compared to a barometer of endothelial health, erectile dysfunction (ED) being an early sign of endothelial dysfunction.
The aim of the study was to investigate the extent of the association between ED and endothelial dysfunction in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection on antiretroviral therapy.
In this observational cross-sectional study, we evaluated the prevalence and factors associated with ED in a cohort of 133 HIV-infected men.
The International Index of Erectile Function, ultrasound assessment of brachial artery flow mediated dilatation (FMD), and multi-slice computed tomography for coronary artery calcifications (CAC) as surrogates of endothelial dysfunction, the Adult Treatment Panel III criteria to diagnose metabolic syndrome (MS), plasma total testosterone (hypogonadism), and a visual analogue scale (VAS) of aesthetic satisfaction of the face and of the body (psychological distress associated with lipodystrophy).
Thirty-nine (29.32%) patients had mild ED, 14 (10.52%) patients had moderate ED, and 26 (19.55%) patients had severe ED. Prevalence of ED ranged from 45% to 65%, respectively, in patients less than 40 and more than 60 years old. MS was present in 20 (25%) patients with ED and 13 (24%) patients without ED (P value = 0.87). Prevalence of ED neither appeared to be associated with MS as a single clinical pathological entity nor with the numbers of its diagnostic components. FMD < 7% was present in 25 (32%) patients with ED and 18 (33%) patients without ED (P value = 0.83), and CAC > 100 was present in 8 (10%) patients with ED and 5 (9%) patients without ED (P value = 0.87). A stepwise multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to find predictors of ED. Independent predictors were VAS face (odds ratio [OR] = 0.85, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.73-0.99, P = 0.049) and age per 10 years of increase (OR = 1.73, 95% CI 1.02-2.94, P = 0.04).
Age constituted the most important risk factor for ED, which was related to aesthetic dissatisfaction of the face leading to negative body image perception.
Journal of Sexual Medicine 04/2011; 9(4):1114-21. · 3.55 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Prevalence and factors associated with sexual dysfunction in HIV-positive women are poorly known.
This was a cross-sectional study in a cohort of HIV-infected women. Clinically stable women were invited to participate in a female sexual dysfunction (FSD) evaluation with Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) exploring desire, arousal, lubrication, orgasm, pain and satisfaction. An FSFI score <23 was used for defining FSD. Variables evaluated included body appearance satisfaction, interference of body changes with habits, social life and attitudinal aspects of body image, health-related quality of life, hormonal assessment, menopause, cumulative exposure to antiretroviral drug classes and immune-virological parameters. Lipodystrophy was defined according to the HIV Outpatient Study definition.
A total of 185 women completed the FSFI. The mean (+/-SD) age was 42 years (+/-5), 27% had CDC stage C, the mean (+/-SD) CD4+ T-cell count was 508 cells/microl (+/-251) and median HIV RNA was 1.7 log10 copies/ml (interquartile range 1.7-2.6). Among 161 evaluable patients, 59 (32%) reported FSD. In a multiple linear regression analysis, desire, arousal and satisfaction domains were associated with interference of body changes with habits, social life and attitudinal aspects of body image (beta = 0.22, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.06-0.37; beta = 0.29, 95% CI 0.10-0.48; and beta = 0.20, 95% CI 0.02-0.38, respectively). Lubrication and orgasm domains were associated with body image satisfaction (beta = -0.49, 95% CI -0.88 - -0.10 and beta = -0.58, 95% CI -1.00 - -0.16, respectively). No significant associations with sex hormones, CDC stage, CD4+ T-cell count, HIV RNA viral load and cumulative exposure to antiretroviral drug classes were found. In women with FSD, severity of self-perceived abdominal fat accumulation showed a trend towards lower FSFI scores (ANOVA P = 0.02).
FSD was highly prevalent in this cohort. Self-perceived body changes was identified as its major determinant.
Antiviral therapy 02/2009; 14(1):85-92. · 3.16 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Both psychological and organic factors have been recognized to be associated with sexual dysfunction in HIV-infected individuals.
In this cross-sectional study we evaluated the prevalence and factors associated with sexual dysfunction in a cohort of HIV-infected adult men. Evaluation tools included: the International Index of Erectile Function (erectile dysfunction [ED], desire, orgasm, intercourse satisfaction, overall satisfaction), the Assessment of Body Change and Distress (body image satisfaction), the Medical Outcomes Study HIV Health Survey (mental and physical health-related quality of life), and plasma free and total testosterone level (hypogonadism).
Three-hundred and fifty-seven men were enrolled. Among 336 patients reporting sexual activities in the 4 weeks before, 94 (29.6%) had mild, 30 (9.4%) moderate and 34 (10.1%) severe dysfunction. The Mental Health Summary score was 2.28 units (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.51, 3.06) lower for each unit higher of body image dissatisfaction and 0.31 units (95% CI 0.27, 0.36) higher for each unit higher of the score for body change interference with habits. At regression analysis, ED was independently related to the body mass index (B = 0.31, 95% CI 0.08, 0.62). Desire, orgasm and overall satisfaction domains were associated with mental health score (B = 0.87, 95% CI 0.47, 1.27; B = 0.75, 95% CI 0.23, 1.26; B = 0.86, 95% CI 0.45, 1.28, respectively). An improved intercourse satisfaction domain was associated with a lower interference of body changes with habits and social life (B = 0.39, 95% CI 0.05, 0.73). Testosterone, metabolic alterations and HAART were not associated with sexual function domains.
Body image and mental health but not HAART or hypogonadism were associated with sexual function domains.
Antiviral therapy 02/2007; 12(7):1059-65. · 3.16 Impact Factor