[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Platensimycin (PTM) is a recently discovered broad-spectrum antibiotic produced by Streptomyces platensis. It acts by selectively inhibiting the elongation-condensing enzyme FabF of the fatty acid biosynthesis pathway in bacteria. We report here that PTM is also a potent and highly selective inhibitor of mammalian fatty acid synthase. In contrast to two agents, C75 and cerulenin, that are widely used as inhibitors of mammalian fatty acid synthase, platensimycin specifically inhibits fatty acid synthesis but not sterol synthesis in rat primary hepatocytes. PTM preferentially concentrates in liver when administered orally to mice and potently inhibits hepatic de novo lipogenesis, reduces fatty acid oxidation, and increases glucose oxidation. Chronic administration of platensimycin led to a net reduction in liver triglyceride levels and improved insulin sensitivity in db/+ mice fed a high-fructose diet. PTM also reduced ambient glucose levels in db/db mice. These results provide pharmacological proof of concept of inhibiting fatty acid synthase for the treatment of diabetes and related metabolic disorders in animal models.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 03/2011; 108(13):5378-83. · 9.74 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the impact of reduced adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4) in control of body weight, glucose and lipid homeostasis in diet-induced obese (DIO) mice.
We applied RNA interference (RNAi) technology to generate FABP4 germline knockdown mice to investigate their metabolic phenotype.
RNAi-mediated knockdown reduced FABP4 mRNA expression and protein levels by almost 90% in adipocytes of standard chow-fed mice. In adipocytes of DIO mice, RNAi reduced FABP4 expression and protein levels by 70 and 80%, respectively. There was no increase in adipocyte FABP5 expression in FABP4 knockdown mice. The knockdown of FABP4 significantly increased body weight and fat mass in DIO mice. However, FABP4 knockdown did not affect plasma glucose and lipid homeostasis in DIO mice; nor did it improve their insulin sensitivity.
Our data indicate that robust knockdown of FABP4 increases body weight and fat mass without improving glucose and lipid homeostasis in DIO mice.
International journal of obesity (2005) 02/2011; 35(2):217-25. · 5.22 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A new series of thiazole-substituted 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-propanols were prepared and evaluated as malonyl-CoA decarboxylase (MCD) inhibitors. Key analogs caused dose-dependent decreases in food intake and body weight in obese mice. Acute treatment with these compounds also led to a drop in elevated blood glucose in a murine model of type II diabetes.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Plasma cell membrane glycoprotein-1, or ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodieterase (PC-1/ENPP1) has been shown to inhibit insulin signaling in cultured cells in vitro and in transgenic mice in vivo when overexpressed. Furthermore, both genetic polymorphism and increased expression of PC-1 have been reported to be associated with type 2 diabetes in humans. Thus it was proposed that PC-1 inhibition represents a potential strategy for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. However, it has not been proven that suppression of PC-1 expression or inhibition of its function will actually improve insulin sensitivity. We show in the current study that transient overexpression of PC-1 inhibits insulin-stimulated insulin receptor tyrosine phosphorylation in HEK293 cells, while knockdown of PC-1 with siRNA significantly increases insulin-stimulated Akt phosphorylation in HuH7 human hepatoma cells. Adenoviral vector expressing a short hairpin RNA against mouse PC-1 (PC-1shRNA) was utilized to efficiently knockdown PC-1 expression in the livers of db/db mice. In comparison with db/db mice treated with a control virus, db/db mice treated with the PC-1shRNA adenovirus had approximately 80% lower hepatic PC-1 mRNA levels, approximately 30% lower ambient fed plasma glucose, approximately 25% lower fasting plasma glucose, and significantly improved oral glucose tolerance. Taken together, these results demonstrate that suppression of PC-1 expression improves insulin sensitivity in vitro and in an animal model of diabetes, supporting the proposition that PC-1 inhibition is a potential therapeutic approach for the treatment of type 2 diabetes.
European journal of pharmacology 09/2009; 616(1-3):346-52. · 2.59 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Plasma cell membrane glycoprotein-1 or ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase (PC-1/ENPP1) has been shown to inhibit insulin signaling, and its genetic polymorphism or increased expression is associated with type 2 diabetes in humans. Therefore, PC-1 inhibition represents a potential strategy in treating diabetes. Since patients with phosphodiesterase/pyrophosphatase deficient PC-1 manifest abnormal calcification, enhancing insulin signaling by inhibiting PC-1 for the treatment of diabetes will be feasible only if PC-1 phosphodiesterase/pyrophosphatase activity needs not be significantly diminished. However, whether inhibition of insulin receptor signaling by PC-1 is dependent upon its phosphodiesterase/pyrophosphatase activity remains controversial. In this study, the extracellular domain of the human PC-1 in its native form or with a T256A or T256S mutation was overexpressed and purified. Enzymatic assays showed that both mutants have less than 10% of the activity of the wild-type protein. In HEK293 cells stably expressing recombinant insulin receptor or insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) receptor, transient expression of wild-type full length PC-1 (PC-1.FL.WT) but not the T256A or T256S mutants inhibits insulin signaling without affecting IGF1 signaling. Western blot and FACS analysis showed that the wild-type and mutant full length PC-1 proteins are expressed at similar levels in the cells, and were localized to the similar levels on the cell surface. Overexpression of PC-1.FL.WT did not affect insulin receptor mRNA level, total protein and cell surface levels. Together, these results suggest that the inhibition of insulin signaling by PC-1 is somewhat specific and is dependent upon the enzymatic activity of the phosphodiesterase/pyrophosphatase.
European journal of pharmacology 02/2009; 606(1-3):17-24. · 2.59 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Effective therapies for the treatment of obesity, a key element of metabolic syndrome, are urgently needed but currently lacking. Stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD1) is the rate-limiting enzyme catalyzing the conversion of saturated long-chain fatty acids into monounsaturated fatty acids, which are major components of triglycerides. In the current study, we tested the efficacy of pharmacological inhibition of SCD1 in controlling lipogenesis and body weight in mice. SCD1-specific antisense oligonucleotide inhibitors (ASOs) reduced SCD1 expression, reduced fatty acid synthesis and secretion, and increased fatty acid oxidization in primary mouse hepatocytes. Treatment of mice with SCD1 ASOs resulted in prevention of diet-induced obesity with concomitant reductions in SCD1 expression and the ratio of oleate to stearoyl-CoA in tissues and plasma. These changes correlated with reduced body adiposity, hepatomegaly and steatosis, and postprandial plasma insulin and glucose levels. Furthermore, SCD1 ASOs reduced de novo fatty acid synthesis, decreased expression of lipogenic genes, and increased expression of genes promoting energy expenditure in liver and adipose tissues. Thus, SCD1 inhibition represents a new target for the treatment of obesity and related metabolic disorders.
Journal of Clinical Investigation 05/2005; 115(4):1030-8. · 12.81 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Molecular modeling has been used to assist in the development of a novel series of potent glycogen phosphorylase inhibitors based on a phenyl diacid lead, compound 1. In the absence of suitable competitive binding assays, compound 1 was predicted to bind at the AMP allosteric site based on superposition onto known inhibitors which bind at different sites in the enzyme and analyses of the surrounding protein environment associated with these distinct sites. Possible docking modes of compound 1 at the AMP allosteric site were further explored using the crystal structure of rabbit muscle glycogen phosphorylase complexed with a Bayer diacid compound W1807 (PDB entry 3AMV). Compound 1 was predicted to interact with positively charged arginines at the AMP allosteric site in the docking model. Characterization of the binding pocket by a grid-based surface calculation of the docking model revealed a large unfilled hydrophobic region near the central phenyl ring, suggesting that compounds with larger hydrophobic groups in this region would improve binding. A series of naphthyl diacid compounds were designed and synthesized to access this hydrophobic cleft, and showed significantly improved potency.
Journal of Molecular Graphics and Modelling 05/2005; 23(5):457-64. · 2.33 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The preparation of a series of substituted indoles coupled to six- and seven-membered cyclic lactams is described and their role as human glycogen phosphorylase a inhibitors discussed. The SAR of the indole moiety and lactam ring are presented.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A new class of diacid analogues that binds at the AMP site not only are very potent but have approximately 10-fold selectivity in liver versus muscle glycogen phosphorylase (GP) in the in vitro assay. The synthesis, structure, and in vitro and in vivo biological evaluation of these liver selective glycogen phosphorylase inhibitors are discussed.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The synthesis of a series of novel dihdyropyridine diacid glycogen phosphorylase inhibitors is presented. SAR and functional assay data are discussed, along with the effect of a single inhibitor on blood glucose in a diabetic animal model.