[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Acute lung injury and the acute respiratory distress syndrome are characterized by increased lung oxidant stress and apoptotic cell death. The contribution of epithelial cell apoptosis to the development of lung injury is unknown.
To determine whether oxidant-mediated activation of the intrinsic or extrinsic apoptotic pathway contributes to the development of acute lung injury.
Exposure of tissue-specific or global knockout mice or cells lacking critical components of the apoptotic pathway to hyperoxia, a well-established mouse model of oxidant-induced lung injury, for measurement of cell death, lung injury, and survival.
We found that the overexpression of SOD2 prevents hyperoxia-induced BAX activation and cell death in primary alveolar epithelial cells and prolongs the survival of mice exposed to hyperoxia. The conditional loss of BAX and BAK in the lung epithelium prevented hyperoxia-induced cell death in alveolar epithelial cells, ameliorated hyperoxia-induced lung injury, and prolonged survival in mice. By contrast, Cyclophilin D-deficient mice were not protected from hyperoxia, indicating that opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore is dispensable for hyperoxia-induced lung injury. Mice globally deficient in the BH3-only proteins BIM, BID, PUMA, or NOXA, which are proximal upstream regulators of BAX and BAK, were not protected against hyperoxia-induced lung injury suggesting redundancy of these proteins in the activation of BAX or BAK.
Mitochondrial oxidant generation initiates BAX- or BAK-dependent alveolar epithelial cell death, which contributes to hyperoxia-induced lung injury.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 10/2010; 183(8):1043-54. · 11.04 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ambient particulate matter is increasingly recognized as a significant contributor to human cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality in the United States and worldwide. We sought to determine whether exposure to ambient particulate matter would alter alveolar fluid clearance in mice. Mice were exposed to a range of doses of a well-characterized particulate matter collected from the ambient air in Düsseldorf, Germany through a single intratracheal instillation, and alveolar fluid clearance and measurements of lung injury were made. Exposure to even very low doses of particulate matter (10 microg) resulted in a significant reduction in alveolar fluid clearance that was maximal 24 h after the exposure, with complete resolution after 7 d. This was paralleled by a decrease in lung Na,K-ATPase activity. To investigate the mechanism of this effect, we measured plasma membrane Na,K-ATPase abundance in A549 cells and Na,K-ATPase activity in primary rat alveolar type II cells after exposure to particulate matter in the presence or absence of the combined superoxide dismutase and catalase mimetic EUK-134 (5 microM). Membrane but not total protein abundance of the Na,K-ATPase was decreased after exposure to particulate matter, as was Na,K-ATPase activity. This decrease was prevented by the combined superoxide dismutase/catalase mimetic EUK-134. The intratracheal instillation of particulate matter results in alveolar epithelial injury and decreased alveolar fluid clearance, conceivably due to downregulation of the Na,K-ATPase.
American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology 07/2006; 34(6):670-6. · 4.15 Impact Factor