ABSTRACT: Although there have been numerous reports in personality of mood disorders, there have been few reports in regard with personality of winter seasonal affective disorder (SAD). Furthermore, no reports have been published concerning summer SAD personality characteristics. Thus, this study was conducted to assess the personality of winter and summer SAD using Tri-dimensional Personality Questionnaire (TPQ) that have been used in a variety of mental disorders.
A total of 6135 Japanese were evaluated with TPQ, the Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire (SPAQ) and the Self-rating Depression Scale (SDS). Winter, summer and non-SAD groups were classified by SPAQ. We compared the difference of personality trait among these three groups in consideration of gender, age and SDS score influence.
Winter SAD demonstrated higher "Novelty Seeking" and "Harm Avoidance"; summer SAD showed higher "Harm Avoidance" than the non-SAD group. "Harm Avoidance" in both SAD groups was re-analyzed using SDS score as a covariate, and "Novelty Seeking" in winter SAD using age as a covariate. As a result, the significance of high "Novelty Seeking" and high "Harm Avoidance" in winter SAD was excluded. However, "Harm Avoidance" remained the significant difference between summer and non-SAD.
SAD was diagnosed only by SPAQ and not by interview. The state-dependency of "Harm Avoidance" was not confirmed in identical patients over lapse of time.
Patients with winter SAD have high "Harm Avoidance" dependent on the depressive state that is in accordance with non-seasonal depression. Patients with summer SAD have high "Harm Avoidance" possibly independent from the depressive state.
Journal of Affective Disorders 05/2005; 85(3):267-73. · 3.52 Impact Factor
International Clinical Psychopharmacology 04/2004; 19(3):189. · 2.92 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: A pilot study using actigraph was conducted to assess the effects of a 1-week repeated administration of 15 mg of quazepam on the sleep and daytime activity of six healthy adults. The nocturnal sleep time gradually increased during quazepam administration, and a significant difference from the baseline was noted on the seventh day of administration. There was no significant difference in the daytime activity before and after the administration. Quazepam and its active metabolites appear to have acted on the level not affecting the daytime activity but prolonging the nocturnal sleep time through their interactions.
Sleep and Biological Rhythms 06/2003; 1(2):171 - 172. · 0.48 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Little is known as to whether or not the seven personality dimensions of Cloninger's theory, particularly the three character dimensions newly included in the theory, are independent of the states of depression.
One hundred and eight patients with major depression filled out the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) before and after a 16-week antidepressant treatment.
The level of depression, as assessed by the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, was correlated positively to the harm avoidance score and negatively to the self-directedness and cooperativeness scores. During the treatment, the scores on these three dimensions significantly changed toward normal values in treatment-responders, but were stable in treatment-nonresponders. The changes in these dimensions were significantly explained by the change in the depression severity during treatment. Scores on novelty seeking, reward dependence, persistence, and self-transcendence were not correlated significantly to the level of depression and did not change significantly during the treatment in either treatment-responders or nonresponders.
The changes in the TCI scores during treatment in this study may reflect a non-specific tendency for the scores to change on retest.
The results suggest that a depressive state can significantly affect assessments of harm avoidance, self-directedness, and cooperativeness in major depression. The administration of the TCI during a depressive episode may elevate the HA score, and may lower the SD and C scores. These findings highlight the importance of considering the state of depression before drawing conclusions about the TCI personality traits, when a patient with major depression is still experiencing a depressive episode.
Journal of Affective Disorders 06/2002; 69(1-3):31-8. · 3.52 Impact Factor