[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mesenchymal stem cells are an interesting source of material for regenerative medicine. The present study aimed at characterizing the phenotype and differentiation potential of adherent synovial fluid-derived cells from temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disorder patients.
Synovial fluid collection takes place during TMJ cavity irrigation arthrocentesis under local anesthesia. The synovial fluid-derived adherent cells were fibroblast-like and spindle-shaped. Ex vivo-expanded synovial fluid-derived cells were shown to express STRO-1 and CD146, previously found to be present in bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. Further, they were identified as being capable of differentiating into a variety of cell types including osteoblasts, chondrocytes, adipocytes, and neurons.
The present study demonstrates that human pluripotent cells can be isolated from synovial fluid. These synovial fluid-derived cells cannot only be derived from a very accessible resource, but are also capable of providing sufficient cells for potential clinical applications.
These cells may play a role in the regenerative response during arthritic diseases and are promising candidates for developing novel cell-based therapeutic approaches for postnatal skeletal tissue repair.
Life sciences 09/2011; 89(19-20):741-7. · 2.56 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study aimed to carry out a histological examination of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) in ank mutant mice and to identify polymorphisms of the human ANKH gene in order to establish the relationship between the type of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) and ANKH polymorphisms.
Specimens from the TMJ of ank mutant and wild-type mice were inspected with a haematoxylin and eosin staining method. A sample of 55 TMD patients were selected. Each was examined with standard clinical procedures and genotyping techniques.
The major histological finding in ank mutant mice was joint space narrowing. Within TMD patients, closed lock was more prevalent among ANKH-OR homozygotes (p = 0.011, OR = 7.7, 95% CI 1.6-36.5) and the elder (p = 0.005, OR = 2.4, 95% CI 1.3-4.3).
Fibrous ankylosis was identified in the TMJ of ank mutant mice. In the human sample, ANKH-OR polymorphism was found to be a genetic marker associated with TMJ closed lock. Future investigations correlating genetic polymorphism to TMD are indicated.
PLoS ONE 01/2011; 6(10):e25503. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to investigate the therapeutic usefulness of fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) in rabbit temporomandibular joints (TMJ) with osteoarthritis. A 10-mm(3) defect was bored in the surface of the mandibular condyle head. The animals were divided into four groups: two test groups in which the defect was filled with lyophilized collagen containing 0.1 or 1.0microg of FGF-2, and two control groups, in which the defects were filled with lyophilized collagen without FGF-2 or left empty. The defective sites were examined under a light microscope 3 weeks after surgery. Initiation of cartilage formation was observed in the defects filled with 0.1microg of FGF-2, but only a small amount of cartilage was found in the defects of the 1.0-mug FGF-2- treated group. In the control groups, soft-tissue repair only or no tissue repair was found. In vivo, a dose of 0.1microg of FGF-2 can stimulate articular cartilage restoration in defects of the TMJ in rabbits, although determining the effective concentration range of FGF-2 may be difficult. The present results suggest that an optimum concentration of FGF-2 could restore defects of TMJ articular cartilage clinically.
International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery 11/2007; 36(10):934-7. · 1.52 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Our aim was to find out the extent of expression of substance P in synovial tissue from the human temporomandibular joints (TMJ) with symptomatic, non-reducing internal derangement, and to investigate the relationship between substance P and clinical findings. Fifty-four joints in 54 patients were examined immunohistochemically. Specimens of synovial tissue from 10 joints in 8 subjects with habitual dislocation of the TMJ with no pain were examined as controls. Cells that stained for substance P were found mainly among the endothelial cells in the blood vessels beneath the lining cells in synovial tissues from 47 of the 54 joints (87%) with internal derangement and from 5 of the 10 control joints. The extent score of cells that stained for substance P in joints with internal derangement was significantly higher than that in controls (p=0.02). The extent score of these cells did not correlate with pain in the joint or the degree of synovitis. These results suggest that substance P may have some roles in both the physiological and pathological conditions in patients with symptomatic internal derangement of the TMJ.
British Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery 08/2007; 45(5):372-7. · 2.72 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We aimed to elucidate the pathogenesis and evaluate the therapeutic behaviour of patients with an anchored disc phenomenon but a normally positioned disc of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). Fourteen patients with internal derangement including closed lock of one TMJ were examined. All had normally positioned discs. Synovial fluid was collected from the TMJ by arthrocentesis. Their symptoms, and the protein concentration in the synovial fluid, were evaluated. Their median duration of illness was 3 months (range 0.5-12), and the median protein concentration was low (343 microg/ml; range 36-791). Arthrocentesis was successful in nine. Arthroscopic findings in the five unsuccessful cases showed severe intra-articular adhesions of the TMJ. The main intra-articular pathological feature was the presence of adhesions, which might be affected by low protein concentrations in the synovial fluid. These findings may provide a new treatment in patients with normally positioned discs, despite the small number studied.
British Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery 07/2007; 45(4):279-83. · 2.72 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To compare levels of bradykinin (BK), leukotriene B4 (LTB4), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and substance P (SP) between successful and unsuccessful cases of arthrocentesis of temporomandibular joint disorders (TMDs).
A total of 66 joints in 66 patients with TMDs who underwent arthrocentesis were evaluated in this study. Synovial fluid diluted with saline solution was aspirated from the superior joint compartment before arthrocentesis and their concentrations of BK, LTB4, PGE2, and SP were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The differences in the detection rate and concentration of each mediator between successful cases and unsuccessful cases of arthrocentesis were analyzed statistically.
Arthrocentesis was successful for 77% (51/66) of the joints. The mean detection rate of LTB4 was significantly (P < .05) higher in the unsuccessful cases (47%) than in the successful cases (16%). The mean concentration of BK was significantly (P < .0005) higher in the unsuccessful cases (425 pg/mL) than in the successful cases (144 pg/mL). There was also a statistical correlation between the detection of LTB4 and PGE2 (P < .01).
Increased levels of BK and LTB4 in the synovial fluid of patients with TMDs may indicate that arthrocentesis is less likely to be a successful treatment.
Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery 03/2007; 65(2):242-7. · 1.33 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present study was performed to characterize the patterns of protein expression in the synovial fluid (SF) of patients with temporomandibular joint disorders (TMD) by electrophoretic fractionation.
Samples of the SF of 26 consecutive patients consisting of 16 with closed locking (CL group) and 10 with osteoarthritis (OA group), as well as 7 asymptomatic control subjects (AS group), were analyzed in the present study. SF samples were obtained from the upper compartment of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) and equal quantities of SF protein were analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE).
The mean total protein concentrations in the SF from both of the TMD groups were higher than that in the AS group (1353 microg/mL in the CL group and 2485 microg/mL in the OA group vs 615 microg/mL in the AS group; P < .01). Moreover, the mean total SF protein concentration was higher in the OA group than in the CL group (P < .01). There was a correlation between the total protein concentration in the SF from both patient groups and the degree of expanded joint effusion (P = .003, r = 0.685). Approximately 22 different protein bands with molecular weights ranging from 14 to 700 kd were clearly discernible on electrophoresis. The relative amounts of specific proteins in the SF of the TMD group were also different from those in the AS group (P < .05). The major difference in total protein concentration appeared to be due to the increased abundance of relatively high molecular weight proteins (>140 kd) in the TMD patients as compared to the AS group.
The SF of patients with TMD showed significant quantitative differences in total protein abundance as compared to healthy subjects. Moreover, this protein abundance was correlated strongly with the degree of expanded joint effusion. The major difference in total protein concentration appeared to be due to the increased abundance of relatively high molecular weight polypeptides in the TMD patients as compared to the healthy control subjects. These observations of changes in the pattern of protein expression may help in understanding the etiological factors involved in the pathophysiology of TMD.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present study was performed to determine the variations in anatomical features of the ramus and the course of the maxillary artery to reduce the risk of injury during intraoral vertico-sagittal ramus osteotomy (IVSRO).
The locations and sizes of anatomical features of the medial aspect of mandibular rami were measured in 94 bilateral sides of 47 dry mandibles as a control group, and the results were compared with 3-dimensional computed tomography images of 44 sides of 22 patients with prognathism. We also dissected 12 sides of 6 mandibles from cadavers in a simulated IVSRO procedure to determine the course of the maxillary artery near the medial aspect of the ramus.
In the dry mandibles and patients with prognathism, the mandibular foramen was located slightly posterior to the center of the width of the mandibular ramus, and the lingula tip was located about one third the distance from the sigmoid notch to the inferior border of the ramus. The distance from the lateral margin of the mandibular foramen to the lateral surface of the mandibular ramus ranged from 3.1 to 4.4 mm. However, these distances showed various ranges. In the mandibles from Asian cadavers, the maxillary artery approached close to the ramus and passed lateral to the lower head of the lateral pterygoid muscle.
The position of the mandibular foramen in rami varies among individuals and, therefore, should be confirmed preoperatively on axial CT images. In addition, the maxillary artery approaches close to the medial aspect of the sigmoid notch in many cases. Therefore, the medial aspect from the sigmoid notch should be exposed carefully in the IVSRO procedure to avoid damaging the maxillary artery.
Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery 04/2006; 64(3):384-9. · 1.33 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To elucidate expression of capsaicin receptor TRPV-1 in synovial tissues of the human temporomandibular joint (TMJ) with internal derangement and discuss its relationship with joint pain.
Fifty-four TMJs in 54 patients were examined using an immunohistochemical technique. As controls, 10 TMJs with habitual dislocation without pain were also examined.
TRPV-1 was expressed mainly in the blood vessels beneath the lining cells in synovial tissues from 31 of the 54 joints with internal derangement and from 8 of the 10 control joints. The extent score of TRPV-1-stained cells with internal derangement was not significantly higher than that of controls. The extent score of TRPV-1 showed no correlation with joint pain.
TRPV-1 was detected in the region of the posterior disk attachment of synovial tissues from the TMJ in patients with internal derangement and controls. TRPV-1 may play a role in maintenance of the physiologic condition of the TMJ.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The concentration of protein in synovial fluid (SF) of temporomandibular joints (TMJs) with disorders tends to be increased. We investigated the protein composition of SF of rabbits in which arthritis of the TMJ was induced.
Arthritis was induced in six TMJs in six rabbits by exertion of a load for 4 weeks. Six non-loaded TMJs in six rabbits served as controls. The protein concentration and content in TMJ SF of the two groups were compared.
The mean protein concentration was higher in the SF of the loaded group than in that of the non-loaded group (1824 microg/ml vs. 398 microg/ml, P = 0.002). Proteins with molecular weights of more than 95 kDa were abundant in the loaded group (P < 0.05).
Temporomandibular arthritis induced by mechanical loading in rabbit is accompanied by an increase in the abundance of relatively high molecular weight proteins in SF.
Journal of Oral Pathology and Medicine 11/2005; 34(9):546-51. · 2.06 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To elucidate the correlations between joint effusion (JE) on T2-weighted magnetic resonance images (MRI) of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) and the levels of various cytokine receptors, cytokine antagonists, and protein in the synovial fluid of patients with temporomandibular joint disorders (TMD).
Fifty-five TMJs of 55 patients with TMD were scanned by MRI, and synovial fluid samples were obtained on the same day. The grade of JE was evaluated on a scale of 0 to 3: Grades 0 and 1 indicated absence, and grades 2 and 3 indicated the presence of JE. Correlations were evaluated between JE and the concentrations of soluble tumor necrosis factor receptors I and II (sTNFR-I and sTNFR-II, respectively), IL-6 soluble receptor (IL-6sR), IL-1 soluble receptor type II, and IL-1 receptor antagonist and protein in the synovial fluid of patients with TMD.
The concentrations of sTNFR-I and protein in the group with JE (18 joints) were significantly higher than in the group without JE (37 joints). In addition, there were significant positive correlations between the grade of JE and the levels of sTNFR-I, sTNFR-II, and protein.
sTNFRs and protein may play important roles in the pathogenesis of TMD. These mediators seem to influence the expression of JE, which may reflect synovial inflammation of the TMJ.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is an inducer of angiogenesis and permeability of small blood vessels. We determined the concentrations of VEGF in synovial fluid of patients with symptomatic internal derangement of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ).
Diluted synovial fluid was collected by a pumping procedure from 22 TMJs of patients with internal derangement and 10 control TMJs. VEGF concentration was determined by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.
The VEGF was detected in 14 of the 22 joints (64%) of patients with internal derangement, at a mean concentration of 67 pg/ml, but in only one control joint (12.5 pg/ml) (P = 0.004 for the difference in concentration). There was a significant correlation between VEGF concentration and total protein concentration in the synovial fluid (P = 0.002).
The increased concentration of VEGF in patients with symptomatic internal derangement suggests that this growth factor may be involved in the pathogenesis of this condition.
Journal of Oral Pathology and Medicine 04/2005; 34(3):170-7. · 2.06 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We still lack knowledge of causative factors in arthritis related to temporomandibular disorders (TMD). The goal of the present study was to investigate whether applying a mechanical loading on the glenoid fossa can induce arthritis.
Coil springs were placed in 24 rabbits so as to exert a force of 100 g between the orbital edge and the antegonial notch. At 1, 2, 4 and 8 weeks after the surgery, six samples of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) were removed for histologic examination.
The results showed that mild synovitis began 1-2 weeks after the start of loading, and the degree of synovitis was significant at 4 weeks, and that morphologic changes occurred in the articular eminence and condyle, while type II collagen in the cartilage of the articular eminence degraded prior to that in the condyle.
Our results revealed that mild, continuous mechanical loading to the glenoid fossa induces synovitis of the articular capsule, and induces organic changes of the articular cartilage without destroying these tissues.
Journal of Oral Pathology and Medicine 04/2005; 34(3):157-63. · 2.06 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To measure the levels of various cytokines, cytokine receptors, and cytokine antagonists in the synovial fluid of patients with temporomandibular disorders (TMD) and to determine the correlations among these expression levels.
Synovial fluid was obtained from 55 patients with TMD and from 5 asymptomatic healthy volunteers as controls. The concentrations of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1beta, soluble tumor necrosis factor receptors I and II (sTNFR-I and sTNFR-II), IL-6 soluble receptor (IL-6sR), IL-1 soluble receptor type II, and IL-1 receptor antagonist were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.
The concentrations of TNF-alpha, IL-6, IL-1beta, sTNFR-I, and sTNFR-II were significantly higher in the synovial fluid of patients than in controls (P < .05). TNF-alpha level was positively correlated with those of IL-6, sTNFR-I, and sTNFR-II. In particular, there was a highly significant positive correlation between sTNFR-I and sTNFR-II.
TNF and sTNFRs in the synovial fluid of patients with TMD may be important in the pathogenesis of these disorders.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This article describes the effects of the intraoral vertico-sagittal ramus osteotomy (IVSRO) procedure on the jaw of patients with temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disorders.
IVSRO was performed on 15 patients (30 sides) who had mandibular protrusion or asymmetry with TMJ dysfunction. IVRO was performed on another 15 patients (30 sides). All of the 30 patients had sounds in the TMJ uni- or bilaterally. The relative positions of the condyle and disc and the range of motion of the condyles were determined by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) before and 12 months after the operations.
Sounds such as clicking improved in 92% (24/26) of the joints in the IVSRO group, and in 83% (20/24) of the joints in the IVRO group 12 months after the operation. The positional relationship between the condyle and disc on the MR images improved in 82% (9/11) of the joints with reduction of the anterior disc displacement; in 60% (3/5) of the joints without reduction of the anterior disc displacement in the IVSRO group; in 75% (9/12) of the joints with reduction of the anterior disc displacement; and in 40% (2/5) of the joints without reduction of the anterior disc displacement in the IVRO group. Immediately after the operation, the condyle was displaced anterio-inferiorly in all joints in both groups, but gradually returned to close to the preoperative position. There were no significant differences between the 2 groups regarding the extent of shift of the condylar head at 2 weeks and 12 months after the operation.
The clinical outcomes of the IVSRO procedure are similar to those of the IVRO procedure. Therefore, IVSRO may be a suitable procedure for patients having TMJ dysfunction with skeletal mandibular deformities, particularly when an IVRO is unsuitable.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) is a unique cytokine that induces bony tissue in soft tissue. Tissue reactions at and around the implantation of recombinant human BMP-2 (rhBMP-2) into the soft tissue of rats and nonhuman primates were investigated. At the osteoinduced site of rats, massive trabeculae-lined osteoblasts and rich marrow were observed. At and around the nonosteoinduced sites of nonhuman primates, large clear nuclei were observed in reaction to rhBMP-2 implantation. The surrounding area was visually classified into zones 1, 2 and 3. Zone 3 was near the center of the implant. The area of nuclei, the major axis, the minor axis and the ratio of minor axis per major axis were image-analyzed in the histological views. In zones 1, 2 and 3, the nuclear areas were 18.0 (3.1) mean (SD); unit micron2, 33.4 (5.61) and 110.1 (23.7), respectively. The major axes of nuclear ellipses were 7.45 (0.22) (unit micron), 7.76 (0.26), and 13.9 (1.88), respectively. The minor axes were 3.07 (0.53), 5.59 (0.95) and 10.1 (1.35), respectively. The ratios of minor axis per major axis of nuclear ellipses were 0.4 (0.57), 0.72 (0.11) and 0.73 (0.11) in zones 1, 2 and 3, respectively. These results showed that in zones 2 and 3 cell and tissue reactions were marked against rhBMP-2 implantation.
International journal of tissue reactions 02/2005; 27(4):181-8.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To elucidate the expression of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in synovial tissue taken from the human temporomandibular joint (TMJ) with internal derangement, and discuss the relationship between CGRP and joint pain.
Using an immunohistochemical technique, 48 joints in 48 patients were examined. As controls, synovial tissue specimens from 7 joints with habitual dislocation without pain were also examined.
In all of the internal derangement and control subjects, CGRP-positive cells were observed in the connective tissues around the blood vessels beneath the lining cells. The extent score of CGRP was significantly higher in the internal derangement group than in the control group (P=.033). There was a significant positive correlation between the extent score of CGRP and joint pain (P=.036, r=0.30).
These results suggest that the expression of CGRP is increased in the synovial tissues from patients with internal derangement, and that CGRP seems to play an important role in the mechanism of pain production in patients with symptomatic internal derangement.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This preliminary study was performed to clarify the usefulness of intraoral verticosagittal ramus osteotomy (IVSRO) in patients with temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disorders.
We examined 34 sides in 19 consecutive patients with dentofacial deformities with TMJ dysfunction undergoing IVSRO. Preoperatively, 15 patients had TMJ sounds bilaterally and 4 had sounds unilaterally. Five sides in 3 patients had pain in the TMJ, and 4 sides in 3 patients had masticatory muscle pain. The TMJ symptoms, including TMJ sounds, pain in the TMJ, and masticatory muscle pain in each patient, were assessed clinically before and approximately 12 months after IVSRO. Magnetic resonance imaging was also performed to determine joint status, including determination of the positions of the condyle and disc.
The symptoms of the TMJ after 12 months of orthodontic treatment showed marked improvements, with the disappearance of the TMJ sounds in 94% of the sides examined. Pain in the TMJ improved in 4 of 5 sides, and pain of the masticatory muscle improved in 3 of 4 sides. With regard to the relative positions of the condyle and disc on magnetic resonance imaging, 6 of 8 joints and 5 of 7 joints showed improvement in anterior disc displacement with and without reduction, respectively. The direction and mean amount of movement in the distal segment were 8 mm in setback, 4 mm in advance, and 5 mm counterclockwise.
IVSRO is potentially as useful for the treatment of TMJ disorders in orthognathic surgery patients as is intraoral vertical ramus osteotomy, and IVSRO can be used selectively in cases in which intraoral vertical ramus osteotomy is contraindicated.
Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery 11/2004; 62(10):1246-52. · 1.33 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to examine the cause of joint effusion (JE) appearing postoperatively in the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) of patients with mandibular prognathism on T2-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) images.
MR imaging was performed before and after surgery in 30 TMJs of 15 subjects with mandibular prognathism who underwent intraoral vertical ramus osteotomy (IVRO) and in 20 TMJs of 10 subjects with mandibular prognathism who underwent sagittal split ramus osteotomy (SSRO). The preoperative MR imaging was performed 1 month before surgery, and postoperative MR imaging was performed during maxillomandibular fixation.
Preoperatively, none of SSRO and IVRO groups had JE. Postoperatively, 12 TMJs (40%) of the IVRO group and only 1 TMJ (5%) of the SSRO group had JE. As for the TMJs in the IVRO group, on MR imaging, the degree of downward movement of the condyle after surgery was larger in TMJs with JE (3.8 +/- 2.3 mm) than in TMJs without JE (1.8 +/- 1.6 mm). JE diminished within about 4 months after removal of the maxillomandibular fixation.
JE appearing postoperatively in the TMJ of patients with mandibular prognathism might be relation to the degree of downward movement of the condyle.
Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery 06/2004; 62(5):545-8. · 1.33 Impact Factor